Citation
AlSaffar, Najlae Falah Hameed
(2015)
Development of some fast and efficient methods for elliptic curve scalar multiplication over prime fields.
Doctoral thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia.
Abstract
Elliptic curve cryptosystem (ECC) is being used nowadays more than
ever to fulfill the need for public key cryptosystem because of its ability
to use shorter keys lengths and computationally more efficient algorithms
than anther public key cryptosystems such as RivestShamir
Adleman (RSA), Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) and ElGamal. The
most time consuming operation in ECC is elliptic curve scalar multiplication
(ECSM). Many research have been carried out to accelerate
this operation. The structure of the ECSM involves three mathematical
levels: finite field arithmetic, point arithmetic and scalar arithmetic. The
purpose of this work is to study different issues that arise in the efficient
implementation of ECSM over prime field, specifically targeting
the point and scalar arithmetic levels over elliptic curve.
At the point arithmetic level, we introduce the 4 dimensional Jacobian
coordinates system (4  DJC), where a point (X; Y;Z; T) with Z 6= 0
and T = Z2, corresponds to affine point (X=T; Y=Z3) and satisfying the
elliptic curve equation over prime field. This is due to the expensive
cost of the field multiplication inversion involves in both point doubling
and point addition operation with the arithmetic of the a affine coordinates
(x; y). This system has proven their efficiency in many contexts
that is to reduce the number field operation for point doubling opera tion in comparison with point doubling operation using projective coordinates
system and Jacobian coordinates system respectively, to reduce
the number field operation for point addition operation in comparison
with point addition operation using Jacobian coordinates system and
to reduce the cost of computing point addition using mixed coordinates
technique, also in comparison with using Jacobian coordinates in mixed
coordinates technique.
At the scalar arithmetic level, we develop three new algorithms to accelerate
the ECSM using the non adjacent form (NAF), window ω  non adjacent form (ω  NAF) and direct recoding method (DRM), by
rewriting the scalar involved in ECSM. The proposed algorithm using
NAF to represent the scalar in ECSM reduced the cost of computation
of the ECSM by comparing with using the binary and NAF algorithm
respectively. The second proposed algorithm which is using ω  NAF
reduced the cost of computation of the ECSM by comparing with using
the binary, NAF and ω  NAF algorithm with ω = 3 respectively. Finally,
the proposed two algorithms using DRM to represent the scalar
in ECSM involve binary form and NAF. The computational complexity
of this proposed methods have high performance when computing the
ECSM compared to the other methods. This is due to the number of
operations required for execution is less comparing with using the mutual
opposite form (MOF).
This thesis shows how we can serve the public key cryptosystems by
speeding up the ECSM operation by reducing operations in point and
scalar arithmetic levels.
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