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# Runge-Kutta Methods for Solving Ordinary and Delay Differential Equations

## Citation

Alkhasawneh, Rae’d Ali Ahmed (2006) Runge-Kutta Methods for Solving Ordinary and Delay Differential Equations. PhD thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia.

## Abstract / Synopsis

An introduction to Runge-Kutta methods for the solution of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is introduced. The technique of using Singly Diagonally Implicit Runge-Kutta (SDIRK) method for the integration of stiff and non-stiff ODEs has been widely accepted, this is because SDIRK method is computationally efficient and stiffly stable. Consequently embedded SDIRK method of fourth-order six stage in fifth-order seven stage which has the property that the first row of the coefficient matrix is equal to zero and the last row of the coefficient matrix is equal to the vector output value is constructed. The stability region of the method when applied to linear ODE is given. Numerical results when stiff and non-stiff first order ODEs are solved using the method are tabulated and compared with the method in current use. Introduction to delay differential equations (DDEs) and the areas where they arise are given. A brief discussion on Runge-Kutta method when adapted to delay differential equation is introduced. SDIRK method which has been derived previously is used to solve delay differential equations; the delay term is approximated using divided difference interpolation. Numerical results are tabulated and compared with the existing methods. The stability aspects of SDIRK method when applied to DDEs using Lagrange interpolation are investigated and the region of stability is presented. Runge-Kutta-Nystróm (RKN) method for the solution of special second-order ordinary differential equations of the form ),(yxfy=′′ is discussed. Consequently, Singly Diagonally Implicit Runge-Kutta Nystróm (SDIRKN) method of third-order three stage embedded in fourth-order four stage with small error coefficients is constructed. The stability region of the new method is presented. The method is then used to solve both stiff and non-stiff special second order ODEs and the numerical results suggest that the new method is more efficient compared to the current methods in use. Finally, introduction to general Runge-Kutta-Nystrom (RKNG) method for the solution of second-order ordinary differential equations of the form ),,(yyxfy′=′′ is given. A new embedded Singly Diagonally Implicit Runge-Kutta-Nystróm General (SDIRKNG) method of third-order four stage embedded in fourth-order five stage is derived. Analysis on the stability aspects of the new method is given and numerical results when the method is used to solve both stiff and non-stiff second order ODEs are presented. The results indicate the superiority of the new method compared to the existing method.

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