Effect of Tracked and Rubber-Tyred Logging Machines on Soil Physical Properties of the Berkelah Forest Reserve, Malaysia
Jusoff, Kamaruzaman (1991) Effect of Tracked and Rubber-Tyred Logging Machines on Soil Physical Properties of the Berkelah Forest Reserve, Malaysia. Pertanika, 14 (3). pp. 265-276.
Wheel and track traffic of heavy forest machinery is causing increased concern about forest soil compaction. Compared to agriculture, forest mechanization is potentially more damaging to site productivity because forestry machines tend to be heavier and operations are performed throughout the year regardless of weather conditions. Field experiments of vehicular compaction tests were initiated in dry and wet months (june and November, respectively) on a clay loam soil at the Berkelah Forest Reserve in central Pahang, Malaysia. Two unloaded tree harvesting (TH) machine types (crawler tractor and rubber-tyr ed loader), two soil moisture contents (14 and 21 %of oven dry weight) and vehicular trips (0, 1, 2,4, 8, 16,32 and50passes) were assessed on soil conditions from 0 to 15cm depth. Rates of soil degradation are very different for the two machines. Changes in soil dry bulk density (DBD), total pore space (TPS), aerationporosity (AP), available water-holding capacity (A WC), saturated hydraulic conductivity (SHC) and resistance to penetration (RP) of the rubber-tyred tractor did not exceed those caused by a track-type crawler tractor despite a twofold difference in mean ground contact pressure. The changes in soilDBD and TPS caused by both machines increased with increasing soil moisture content. However, AP, A WC, SHCandRPdecreased with increasingsoil moisture content. Most soil physical properties studied reached a maximum orminimum after the first two passes and remained constant thereafter with the tired machine. SHC appears to he the most sensitive parameter for machine differences. Effects of heavy machinery operation on surface soil compaction should be recognized in forest mechanizatiori.
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