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Heavy metal contamination in Oryza sativa L. at the Eastern Region of Malaysia and its risk assessment


Zulkafflee, Nur Syahirah and Mohd Redzuan, Nurul Adillah and Nematbakhsh, Sara and Selamat, Jinap and Ismail, Mohd Razi and Praveena, Sarva Mangala and Lee, Soo Yee and Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal (2021) Heavy metal contamination in Oryza sativa L. at the Eastern Region of Malaysia and its risk assessment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19 (2). art. no. 739. pp. 1-22. ISSN 1660-4601


Paddy plants tend to accumulate heavy metals from both natural and anthropogenic sources, and this poses adverse risks to human health. The objective of this study was to investigate heavy metal contamination in paddy plants in Kelantan, Malaysia, and its health risk assessment. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals was studied by means of enrichment (EF) and translocation factors (TF). The health risk assessment was performed based on USEPA guidelines. The EF for heavy metals in the studied areas was in the descending order of Cu > As > Cr > Cd > Pb. Meanwhile, Cr and Pb exhibited higher TF values from stem to grain compared with the others. The combined hazard index (HI) resulting from five heavy metals exceeded the acceptable limit (HI >1). The lifetime cancer risk, in both adult and children, was beyond the acceptable limit (10−4) and mainly resulted from exposure. The total cancer risk (CRt) due to simultaneous exposures to multiple carcinogenic elements also exceeded 10−4. In conclusion, intake of heavy metal through rice ingestion is likely to cause both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks. Further research is required to investigate the extent of heavy metal contamination in agricultural soils and, moreover, to establish human exposure as a result of rice consumption

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Official URL or Download Paper: https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/19/2/739

Additional Metadata

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Faculty of Food Science and Technology
Faculty of Medicine and Health Science
Institute of Bioscience
Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security
DOI Number: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020739
Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Keywords: Heavy metals; Enrichment factor; Translocation factor; Health risk assessment
Depositing User: Ms. Nuraida Ibrahim
Date Deposited: 27 Jul 2022 02:46
Last Modified: 27 Jul 2022 02:46
Altmetrics: http://www.altmetric.com/details.php?domain=psasir.upm.edu.my&doi=10.3390/ijerph19020739
URI: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/97512
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