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Classification of non-infected and infected with basal stem rot disease using thermal images and imbalanced data approach


Che Hashim, Izrahayu and Mohamed Shariff, Abdul Rashid and Bejo, Siti Khairunniza and Muharam, Farrah Melissa and Ahmad, Khairulmazmi (2021) Classification of non-infected and infected with basal stem rot disease using thermal images and imbalanced data approach. Agronomy-Basel, 11 (12). art. no. 2373. pp. 1-23. ISSN 2073-4395; ESSN: 2073-4395


Basal stem rot (BSR) disease occurs due to the most aggressive and threatening fungal attack of the oil palm plant known as Ganoderma boninense (G. boninense). BSR is a disease that has a significant impact on oil palm crops in Malaysia and Indonesia. Currently, the only sustainable strategy available is to extend the life of oil palm trees, as there is no effective treatment for BSR disease. This study used thermal imagery to identify the thermal features to classify non-infected and BSR-infected trees. The aims of this study were to (1) identify the potential temperature features and (2) examine the performance of machine learning (ML) classifiers (naïve Bayes (NB), multilayer perceptron (MLP), and random forest (RF) to classify oil palm trees that are non-infected and BSR-infected. The sample size consisted of 55 uninfected trees and 37 infected trees. We used the imbalance data approaches such as random undersampling (RUS), random oversampling (ROS) and synthetic minority oversampling (SMOTE) in these classifications due to the different sample sizes. The study found that the Tmax feature is the most beneficial temperature characteristic for classifying non-infected or infected BSR trees. Meanwhile, the ROS approach improves the curve region (AUC) and PRC results compared to a single approach. The result showed that the temperature feature Tmax and combination feature TmaxTmin had a higher correct classification for the G. boninense non-infected and infected oil palm trees for the ROS-RF and had a robust success rate, classifying correctly 87.10% for non-infected and 100% for infected by G. boninense. In terms of model performance using the most significant variables, Tmax, the ROS-RF model had an excellent receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve region (AUC) of 0.921, and the precision–recall curve (PRC) region gave a value of 0.902. Therefore, it can be concluded that the ROS-RF, using the Tmax, can be used to predict BSR disease with relatively high accuracy.

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Official URL or Download Paper: https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4395/11/12/2373

Additional Metadata

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Faculty of Agriculture
Faculty of Engineering
Institute of Plantation Studies
DOI Number: https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11122373
Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Keywords: Ganoderma boninense; Basal stem rot (BSR); Temperature; Machine learning; Classifier; Imbalance approach; SMOTE; Classification
Depositing User: Ms. Nuraida Ibrahim
Date Deposited: 30 Jan 2023 06:47
Last Modified: 30 Jan 2023 06:47
Altmetrics: http://www.altmetric.com/details.php?domain=psasir.upm.edu.my&doi=10.3390/agronomy11122373
URI: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/96398
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