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Synthesis of magnetic basic palm kernel shell catalyst for biodiesel production and characterisation and optimisation by Taguchi method


Celine, Ming Hui Goh and Yie, Hua Tan and Mubarak, N. M. and Kansedo, Jibrail and Rashid, Umer and Khalid, Mohammad and Walvekar, Rashmi Gangasa (2021) Synthesis of magnetic basic palm kernel shell catalyst for biodiesel production and characterisation and optimisation by Taguchi method. Applied Nanoscience, 12. pp. 3721-3733. ISSN 2190-5509; ESSN: 2190-5517


This paper illustrated the latest breakthroughs which involved the use of eco-friendly and recyclable magnetic palm kernel shell-derived catalysts (Fe-PKS and Fe-KOH-PKS) for methanolysis of palm oil to produce iodiesel. The magnetic catalyst is obtained from abundant carbon-based biomass, i.e. waste palm kernel shell using pyrolysis. Characterisation of the catalyst with field-emission Scanning Electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), temperature-programmed desorption of CO2 (TPD-CO2) thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis was conducted to correlate the catalyst characteristic with transesterification activity. The presence of KOH in the catalyst has beneficial effects on the catalyst performance in transesterification. Next, the L-9 orthogonal set-up of experimental factors established by the Taguchi method was employed to determine the optimal operating conditions for Fe-KOH-PKS catalyst. The highest biodiesel yield of 99.43% using Fe-KOH-PKS catalyst was achieved with optimal operating conditions of 7.5 wt% catalyst loading, 9:1 methanol to oil ratio at 65 °C after 2 h. The catalyst was reused for four cycles, with the final run of biodiesel yield of 70.1%. This reflects the synthesised magnetic waste catalyst from palm kernel shell has demonstrated satisfied reusability and good stability in producing biodiesel.

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Additional Metadata

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Institute of Advanced Technology
DOI Number: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13204-021-01815-6
Publisher: Springer
Keywords: Transesterification; Magnetic; Palm kernel shell; Taguchi method
Depositing User: Ms. Che Wa Zakaria
Date Deposited: 09 Jan 2023 01:40
Last Modified: 09 Jan 2023 01:40
Altmetrics: http://www.altmetric.com/details.php?domain=psasir.upm.edu.my&doi=10.1007/s13204-021-01815-6
URI: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/95269
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