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Phthalates in children toys available in Malaysian market: quantification and potential human health risk


Praveena, Sarva Mangala and Chin, Siok Fong and Amaruddin, Amira Farhana (2021) Phthalates in children toys available in Malaysian market: quantification and potential human health risk. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 213. art. no. 105955. pp. 1-6. ISSN 0960-0760; ESSN: 1879-1220


In Malaysia, inexpensive toys are sold in various urban and rural shops. Although safety regulations for toys are available in Malaysia there are limited reports about the chemicals in toys. Thus, this study aimed to assess the levels of phthalates (bis-[2-ethylhexyl] phthalate [DEHP], diethyl phthalate [DEP], diisobutyl phthalate [DiBP] and dibutyl phthalate [DBP]) in inexpensive toys sold at local markets in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) and its health risks to children. All 30 toys analysed exceeded the European Union limit (0.1 % by mass) indicating that the phthalate used as plasticizers is still prominent in toys. Bis-[2-ethylhexyl] phthalate (DEHP) was the highest detected phthalate in toy sample which was manufactured in Malaysia and sold without Malaysian Conformity Mark. Significant association was found between phthalate levels and country, indicating a need to monitor and raise public awareness about potential toxic chemicals in inexpensive toys and children’s products. There are few inexpensive toys that have a hazard index value of more than one, which is associated with developmental toxicity and causes developmental effects in children. Given the severity and complexity of these toys to children health, there is a need for regular monitoring and effective enforcements to develop an acceptable baseline level of children toys products manufactured in or imported to Malaysia. Furthermore, risk management efforts should also include all the stakeholders involved in toy production, policy makers as well as consumers to ensure only toy products with proper labels being sole and purchased.

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Additional Metadata

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine and Health Science
Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security
DOI Number: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2021.105955
Publisher: Elsevier
Keywords: Phthalate; Children; Toys; Exposure; Health risks
Depositing User: Mas Norain Hashim
Date Deposited: 05 Dec 2022 04:35
Last Modified: 05 Dec 2022 04:35
Altmetrics: http://www.altmetric.com/details.php?domain=psasir.upm.edu.my&doi=10.1016/j.jsbmb.2021.105955
URI: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/94573
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