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Mitigation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters and glycidyl esters in refined palm oil: a new and optimized approach


Hew, Khai Shin and Khor, Yih Phing and Tan, Tai Boon and Mat Yusoff, Masni and Lai, Oi Ming and Asis, Ahmad Jaril and Alharthi, Fahad A. and Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi and Tan, Chin Ping (2021) Mitigation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters and glycidyl esters in refined palm oil: a new and optimized approach. LWT-FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 139. art. no. 110612. pp. 1-9. ISSN 0023-6438


Refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBDPO) is reported to contain high amount of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters (3-MCPDE) and glycidyl esters (GE) due to high-temperature deodorization step and rich in organochlorines. Therefore, a new palm oil refining process was developed to mitigate this problem. The conventional physical refining process was modified and optimized using response surface methodology with selected processing parameters (water and acid dosages, pre-treatment and deodorization temperatures and deodorization duration). Formation of esters in oil during refining was modelled, and a new refining approach which had been optimized and validated was developed. The new method achieved significant reduction in ester contents (78% reduction for 3-MCPDE, 53% reduction for GE; p < 0.05), with free fatty acid content and color maintained at < 1.0% and < 3.0 R. Similar mitigation effect was confirmed by testing the new refining approach with different grades of crude palm oil.

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Additional Metadata

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences
Faculty of Food Science and Technology
DOI Number: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2020.110612
Publisher: Elsevier
Keywords: Response surface methodology; Physical oil refining; Esters mitigation; Separation-free water degumming; Deodorization
Depositing User: Ms. Nur Faseha Mohd Kadim
Date Deposited: 18 May 2023 08:13
Last Modified: 18 May 2023 08:13
Altmetrics: http://www.altmetric.com/details.php?domain=psasir.upm.edu.my&doi=10.1016/j.lwt.2020.110612
URI: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/94205
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