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Botanical origin and nutritional values of bee bread of stingless bee (Heterotrigona itama) from Malaysia


Mohammad, Salma Malihah and Mahmud Ab Rashid, Nor Khaizura and Zawawi, Norhasnida (2020) Botanical origin and nutritional values of bee bread of stingless bee (Heterotrigona itama) from Malaysia. Journal of Food Quality, 2020. pp. 1-12. ISSN 0146-9428; ESSN: 1745-4557


Bee bread is the bee-collected pollen with the mixture of honey and bee salivary enzymes, stored inside the bee hive. Malaysia has limited information on bee bread collected by the stingless bee Heterotrigona itama. Therefore, this study aims to determine the botanical origin and nutritional values of bee bread from H. itama. Melissopalynological analysis was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine the bee bread’s botanical origin. The proximate analysis, water activity, sugar profile, amino acid profile, vitamin C content, mineral content, and heavy metal content of the bee bread were analyzed. From the results obtained, Bidens pilosa was found in bee bread from all sampling locations. Bee bread contained high protein (21.70–23.33%) and carbohydrate (57.06–58.89%) contents. Glucose was the predominant sugar found (average 11.499 g/100 g). Eight essential amino acids were quantified, and arginine was detected the highest. The major mineral element in the bee bread was potassium (average 6705.9 mg/kg), followed by phosphorus and magnesium. Toxic metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium, and arsenic were detected but within the safe limits permitted in food. The data obtained contribute towards expanding the knowledge on the nutritional information specifically for H. itama bee bread in Malaysia.

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Official URL or Download Paper: https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfq/2020/2845757/

Additional Metadata

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Faculty of Food Science and Technology
Institute of Bioscience
DOI Number: https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/2845757
Publisher: Hindawi
Keywords: Bee bread; Honey; Bee hive; Heterotrigona itama; Heavy metal
Depositing User: Ms. Nuraida Ibrahim
Date Deposited: 24 May 2022 04:07
Last Modified: 24 May 2022 04:07
Altmetrics: http://www.altmetric.com/details.php?domain=psasir.upm.edu.my&doi=10.1155/2020/2845757
URI: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/88055
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