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Biocompatible nutmeg oil-loaded nanoemulsion as phyto-repellent


Mohd Narawi, Masturah and Hock, Ing Chiu and Yong, Yoke Keong and Mohamad Zain, Nur Nadhirah and Ramachandran, Muggundha Raoov and Tham, Chau Ling and Samsurrijal, Siti Fatimah and Lim, Vuanghao (2020) Biocompatible nutmeg oil-loaded nanoemulsion as phyto-repellent. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 11. art. no. 214. pp. 1-15. ISSN 1663-9812


Plant essential oils are widely used in perfumes and insect repellent products. However, due to the high volatility of the constituents in essential oils, their efficacy as a repellent product is less effective than that of synthetic compounds. Using a nanoemulsion as a carrier is one way to overcome this disadvantage of essential oils. Nutmeg oil-loaded nanoemulsion (NT) was prepared using a high speed homogenizer and sonicator with varying amounts of surfactant, glycerol, and distilled water. Using a phase diagram, different formulations were tested for their droplet size and insect repellent activity. The nanoemulsion containing 6.25% surfactant and 91.25% glycerol (NT 6) had the highest percentage of protection (87.81%) in terms of repellent activity among the formulations tested for the 8 h duration of the experiment. The droplet size of NT 6 was 217.4 nm, and its polydispersity index (PDI) was 0.248. The zeta potential value was -44.2 mV, and the viscosity was 2.49 Pa.s at pH 5.6. The in vitro release profile was 71.5%. When the cytotoxicity of NT 6 at 400 μg/mL was tested using the MTS assay, cell viability was 97.38%. Physical appearance and stability of the nanoemulsion improved with the addition of glycerol as a co-solvent. In summary, a nutmeg oil-loaded nanoemulsion was successfully formulated and its controlled release of the essential oil showed mosquito repellent activity, thus eliminating the disadvantages of essential oils.

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Additional Metadata

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine and Health Science
DOI Number: https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00214
Publisher: Frontiers Media
Keywords: Aedes aegypti; In vitro release; Nanoemulsion; Nutmeg oil; Repellent activity
Depositing User: Ms. Nuraida Ibrahim
Date Deposited: 24 May 2022 04:48
Last Modified: 24 May 2022 04:48
Altmetrics: http://www.altmetric.com/details.php?domain=psasir.upm.edu.my&doi=10.3389/fphar.2020.00214
URI: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/88026
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