UPM Institutional Repository

Seasonal variation in aflatoxins levels in edible seeds, estimation of its dietary intake and vitamin E levels from Southern Areas of Punjab, Pakistan


Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal and Shehzad, Muhammed Muzammel and Usman, Sunusi and Basheir Ali, Nada and Iqbal, Shahzad Zafar and Naheed, Nadia and Asi, Muhammad Rafique (2020) Seasonal variation in aflatoxins levels in edible seeds, estimation of its dietary intake and vitamin E levels from Southern Areas of Punjab, Pakistan. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17 (23). pp. 1-14. ISSN 1660-4601


A total of 779 samples of edible nuts (melon seeds, watermelon seeds, pumpkin seeds, and cantaloupe seeds) from Southern Punjab (Pakistan), were collected during the summer and the winter seasons. The natural occurrence of aflatoxins (AFs) and vitamin E (tocopherols) levels were investigated using HPLC. The results have shown that 180 (43.4%) of samples from the winter season and 122 (33.4%) samples from the summer season were found positive for AFs. Elevated average levels of total AFs (20.9 ± 3.10 μg/kg, dry weight) were observed in watermelon seeds without shell, and the lowest average amount (15.9 ± 3.60 μg/kg) were documented in melon seeds without shell samples from the winter season. An elevated average amount of total AFs 17.3 ± 1.50 μg/kg was found in pumpkin seeds available without a shell. The results have documented a significant difference in total AFs levels in edible seeds available with shells versus without shells (α = 0.05 & 0.01). The highest dietary intake of 6.30 μg/kg/day was found in female individuals from consuming pumpkin seeds (without shell) in the winter season. A value of 3.00 μg/kg/day was found in pumpkin seed without shell in the summer season in female individuals. The highest total tocopherol levels were 22.2 ± 7.70 ng/100 g in pumpkin seeds samples from the winter season and 14.5 ± 5.50 mg/100 g in melon seed samples from the summer season. The variation of total tocopherol levels in edible seeds among the winter and summer seasons showed a significant difference (p ≤ 0.0054), except watermelon seeds samples with non-significant differences (p ≥ 0.183).

Download File

Full text not available from this repository.
Official URL or Download Paper: https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/17/23/8964

Additional Metadata

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Faculty of Food Science and Technology
Institute of Bioscience
DOI Number: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238964
Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Keywords: AFs; Edible seeds; Tocopherols levels; Dietary intake
Depositing User: Mohamad Jefri Mohamed Fauzi
Date Deposited: 23 Nov 2022 02:36
Last Modified: 23 Nov 2022 02:36
Altmetrics: http://www.altmetric.com/details.php?domain=psasir.upm.edu.my&doi=10.3390/ijerph17238964
URI: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/87541
Statistic Details: View Download Statistic

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item