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Processing of coconut sap into sugar syrup using rotary evaporation, microwave and open-heat evaporation techniques


Asghar, Muhammad Tuseef and Yusof, Yus Aniza and Mokhtar, Mohd Noriznan and Ya'acob, Mohammad Effendy and Mohd Ghazali, Hasanah and Varith, Jaturapatr and Chang, Lee Sin and Abdul Manaf, Yanty Noorzianna (2020) Processing of coconut sap into sugar syrup using rotary evaporation, microwave and open-heat evaporation techniques. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 100 (10). 4012 - 4019. ISSN 1097-0010


Background: Coconut sugar has a caramel color with a taste like brown sugar. It is commonly used as natural sweetener. However, coconut sugar has been produced from coconut sap using a traditional method that involves heating the sap at high temperature (>100 °C) in an open pan for a long period (3–5 h). This conventional method results in an over-cooked sugar, which leads to quality deterioration in terms of both its physical and chemical properties. The current study aimed to investigate the processing of coconut sap into sugar syrup using alternative processing techniques such as rotary vacuum evaporation (RE) and microwave evaporation (ME), comparing them with open-heat evaporation (OHE) technique. Results: Coconut sugar syrup produced by rotary evaporation at 60 °C and 250 mbar vacuum (RE-60) required the shortest production time (12.2 min) and the lowest processing temperature (54.8 °C) when compared with ME (13 min and 103.2 °C) and OHE (46.8 min and 101.6 °C). It also had a light brownish color with a higher L* value (35.17) than the ME (29.84) and OHE (23.84) methods. It was found to contain higher amounts of monosaccharides (fructose and glucose) and lower amounts of disaccharides (sucrose). Furthermore, the amount of energy required for RE-60 (0.35 kWh) was much less than for OHE (0.83 kWh). Conclusion: This study provided an alternative processing method for the sugar processing industry to produce coconut sugar using the rotary evaporation method at 60 °C under 250 mbar vacuum with better physicochemical qualities, shorter processing time, and minimum input energy.

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Additional Metadata

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering
Halal Products Research Institute
DOI Number: https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10446
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Keywords: Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene; Cellulose nanofiber; Bionanocomposite; Response surface methodology; Optimization; Melt-blend processing
Depositing User: Mohamad Jefri Mohamed Fauzi
Date Deposited: 06 Feb 2022 06:38
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2022 06:38
Altmetrics: http://www.altmetric.com/details.php?domain=psasir.upm.edu.my&doi=10.1002/jsfa.10446
URI: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/87304
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