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Recent updates on phthalate exposure and human health: a special focus on liver toxicity and stem cell regeneration


Praveena, Sarva Mangala and Seoh, Wei Teh and Rajendran, Ranjith Kumar and Kannan, Narayanan and Chu, Ching Lin and Abdullah, Rozaini and Kumar, Suresh (2018) Recent updates on phthalate exposure and human health: a special focus on liver toxicity and stem cell regeneration. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25 (12). 11333 - 11342. ISSN 0944-1344; ESSN: 1614-7499


Phthalates have been blended in various compositions as plasticizers worldwide for a variety of purposes. Consequently, humans are exposed to a wide spectrum of phthalates that needs to be researched and understood correctly. The goal of this review is to focus on phthalate's internal exposure pathways and possible role of human digestion on liver toxicity. In addition, special focus was made on stem cell therapy in reverting liver toxicity. The known entry of higher molecular weight phthalates is through ingestion while inhalation and dermal pathways are for lower molecular weight phthalates. In human body, certain phthalates are digested through phase 1 (hydrolysis, oxidation) and phase 2 (conjugation) metabolic processes. The phthalates that are made bioavailable through digestion enter the blood stream and reach the liver for further detoxification, and these are excreted via urine and/or feces. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a compound well studied involving human metabolism. Liver plays a pivotal role in humans for detoxification of pollutants. Thus, continuous exposure to phthalates in humans may lead to inhibition of liver detoxifying enzymes and may result in liver dysfunction. The potential of stem cell therapy addressed herewith will revert liver dysfunction and lead to restoration of liver function properly.

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Additional Metadata

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine and Health Science
DOI Number: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-1652-8
Publisher: Springer
Keywords: Biotransformation; Exposure; Human health; Liver toxicity; Metabolism; Phthalates; Stem cell therapy
Depositing User: Ms. Nida Hidayati Ghazali
Date Deposited: 08 May 2020 16:49
Last Modified: 08 May 2020 16:49
Altmetrics: https://www.altmetric.com/details.php?domain=psasir.upm.edu.my&doi=10.1007/s11356-018-1652-8
URI: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/73719
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