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Evaluation of glyphosate levels in sediments of milky stork foraging areas in Kuala Gula Bird Sanctuary, Perak, Malaysia


Abdul Rahman, Mohd Faid and Ismail, Ahmad and Yusof, Shahrizad and Mazlan, Norida and Engku Ariff, Engku Ahmad Khairi (2019) Evaluation of glyphosate levels in sediments of milky stork foraging areas in Kuala Gula Bird Sanctuary, Perak, Malaysia. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science, 42 (3). pp. 995-1007. ISSN 1511-3701; ESSN: 2231-8542


Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the world since its first introduction in the 1970s. Although its accumulation and direct impact on top predators are unlikely, it has the potential to affect the lower trophic community causing imbalance to the local food web. This paper highlights the background levels of glyphosate in the sediment in a part of the Important Bird and Biodiversity Programme Areas (IBA) in the Matang coast i.e., the Kuala Gula Bird Sanctuary, Perak, Malaysia. Despite housing endangered species like the milky stork and migratory birds, the area is surrounded by massive oil palm plantations that utilize glyphosate-based herbicide. Sediment samples were taken from areas frequently visited by the bird population. The herbicide was analyzed by HPLC-UV detection with previous derivatization using 9-fluorenylmethylchloroformate (FMOC-Cl). In general, the glyphosate levels were between 0.26 and 1.72 ppm. These levels are considered low when compared to other agricultural sites in both local and regional areas. In addition, no significant relationship was established between glyphosate levels in the study sites with the distance from nearby agricultural activity (r = 0.2, n = 18, p > 0.05). This evidence suggests that the pollutant most likely comes from an inter-connected network of water canals and water-bodies that accumulate the plantations’effluent over time. Due to its resistant nature and low concentration in the field, there is little concern over its adverse impact on the aquatic ecosystem in the study area. However, continuous monitoring is still emphasized in this paper.

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Additional Metadata

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Faculty of Agriculture
Faculty of Science
Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security
Publisher: Universiti Putra Malaysia Press
Keywords: Agriculture; Glyphosate; Kuala Gula Bird Sanctuary; Malaysia; Milky stork
Depositing User: Nabilah Mustapa
Date Deposited: 10 Sep 2019 06:15
Last Modified: 10 Sep 2019 06:15
URI: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/71160
Statistic Details: View Download Statistic

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