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The effect of physical and biological pre-treatments of oil palm fronds on in vitro ruminal degradability


Rusli, Nor Dini and Azmi, Mohammad Azri and Mat, Khairiyah and Che Harun, Hasnita and Mohamed, Wan Zahari and Kasim, Azhar and Saad, Mohd Zamri and Abu Hassim, Hasliza (2019) The effect of physical and biological pre-treatments of oil palm fronds on in vitro ruminal degradability. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science, 42 (2). pp. 791-805. ISSN 1511-3701; ESSN: 2231-8542


Physical pre-treatment of the oil palm frond (OPF) is known to loosen the lignocellulose while the biological pre-treatment is capable in degrading the lignin, making the substrates more accessible for rumen microbes. This study aimed at assessing the efficacy of physical, biological and combination of both pre-treatments of OPF on the in vitro ruminal degradability. Five different samples of OPF pre-treatments were used in this study; OPF was subjected to the physical pre-treatment (POPF), OPF to the biological pre-treatments using an enzyme extract of each Ganoderma lucidum (BGL) and Lentinula edodes (BLE), respectively. Another two samples were subjected to a combination of physical and biological pre-treatments of G. lucidum (CGL) and L. edodes (CLE) respectively. The control was non-treated OPF. Two fistulated Katjang goats consuming 440 g/kg OPF and 897 g/ kg commercial pellet daily on dry matter basis were used as rumen fluid donors. In vitro incubation was carried out at 39°C for 24 hours. Proportions of volatile fatty acid were measured at the end of incubation by gas chromatography. Results showed that concentrations of lignin following all pre-treatment methods were significantly lower (p<0.05) at 150(POPF), 90(BGL), 119(BLE), 100(CGL) and 120(CLE) g/ kg DM as compared to the FOPF (190 g/kg). After 24 hours of incubation, the cumulative gas of all treatment groups differed significantly from FOPF. Both BGL and CGL showed significantly higher propionate and butyrate concentrations as well as apparent rumen degradable carbohydrate with 6.57 mg and 6.54 mg, respectively as compared to the FOPF. It appeared that BGL and CGL resulted in higher lignin degradation that increased the in vitro rumen degradability. In conclusion, biological pre-treatment with enzyme extract of WRF, either alone or in combination are promising to improve the quality of OPF.

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Additional Metadata

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Faculty of Agriculture
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
Publisher: Universiti Putra Malaysia Press
Keywords: Biological pre-treatment; In vitro ruminal degradability; Lignin; Oil palm frond; Physical pre-treatment; White rot fungi
Depositing User: Nabilah Mustapa
Date Deposited: 12 Jun 2019 07:44
Last Modified: 12 Jun 2019 07:44
URI: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/69274
Statistic Details: View Download Statistic

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