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VDT workplace design and effects on muscle disorders and eye strain among students at an educational institute


Khaleel, Zinah Muayad (2017) VDT workplace design and effects on muscle disorders and eye strain among students at an educational institute. Masters thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia.


The advancement of information technology encouraged schools, universities and other educational institutions to use visual display terminal (VDT) in conducting lectures rendering services and developing various systems. The use of personal computer (PC) and laptops are common among students. Classrooms are equipped with liquid crystal display (LCD) screens for lecturers to display their lectures for students. Many cases have not been reported because of lack of awareness and understanding on ergonomic. However, Poor ergonomics of the physical environment of VDT can cause musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs); the inappropriateness of school design may influence student achievement negatively. The viewing distance and position of the screens have been found as the main factors causing MSDs. The students’ satisfactions on VDT used in the education institute were determined. The effects of VDT workplace design parameters on muscle disorder and eye strain among students were determined. Ergonomically positions of VDT for safer and comfortable use among students were proposed. Data obtained from 215 LCD projector users and 103 desktop monitor users were analyzed using frequency tables, one sample t-test and Spearman’s rank order correlation coefficient. The frequency analysis for the level of satisfaction among LCD projector users showed that most of the users (88.4%) were satisfied with the viewing distance, and were least satisfied with the lighting(51.6%). For the monitor user, the users were highly satisfied with user/ screen position (80.6%) and least satisfied with the viewing distance (61.2%). Most of the LCD projector users (36.7%), experienced eye pain while performing study tasks on the projector screen, and the least pain were for head pain (22.8%). Most of the desktop monitor users (54.9%) were experienced head pain while performing study tasks on the monitors, and only (32%) experienced back pain. The relationship between the level of satisfaction for physical environment and MSDs was determined using Spearman’s rank order correlation coefficient. Results showed that, there were a significant and negative relationship between satisfaction of lighting and the level of back pain (rs = - 0.213, p < 0.001), head pain (rs = - 0.266, p < 0.001), neck pain (rs = - 0.119, p < 0.034) and eye pain (rs = - 0.292, p < 0.001) levels. Significant relationships were found between the level of distance satisfaction and the level of back pain (rs = - 0.148, p < 0.01) and eye pain (rs = - 0.151, p < 0.04). The results of association between satisfaction of position and MSDs pain indicated that only the relationship between satisfaction of position and the eye pain (rs = - 0.151, p < 0.005) was significant and negative. The results implied that the eye is the part of the body which is affected by all the other variables (lighting, distance, and position), but particularly more affected by problems with lighting in the study hall. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that there is a lack of satisfaction with respect to some items within the physical environment, and there were MSDs disorders associated with VDT use, especially the lighting. These all likely to play a significant role in affecting the user’s health, and subsequently their performance. Thus providing enough lighting sources above the students and nearby the ( monitor/ p- screen), added to the windows in the classrooms and libraries. Also, ensure the proper distance like an arm's length for monitor users and (2 to 10 ) meters for the presentation screen users added to the students position directly in front of the monitor or p- screen with considering the study hall design ( sloped or flat) to provide viewing angle ( 0° to -20°), which allow the students to read the text at or slightly below eyes level, all of those are suggested to reduce the MSDs among UPM students.

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Additional Metadata

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Subject: Video display terminals - Health aspects
Subject: Work environment
Call Number: FK 2018 51
Chairman Supervisor: Professor Rosnah binti Mohd Yusuff, PhD
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering
Depositing User: Ms. Nur Faseha Mohd Kadim
Date Deposited: 04 Apr 2019 07:10
Last Modified: 04 Apr 2019 07:10
URI: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/67918
Statistic Details: View Download Statistic

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