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Influence of personal, community and agency factors on intention to prepare for tsunami in Penang, Malaysia


A Rahim, Syakura (2016) Influence of personal, community and agency factors on intention to prepare for tsunami in Penang, Malaysia. Masters thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia.

Abstract / Synopsis

Tsunami 2004 was an unforeseeable event that caught Malaysia of guard resulting with 68 losses of lives and with an estimated economic loss of about RM236.5 million. Scientists predict that if the earthquake epicentre originates from the Andaman-Nicobar region, the coastal population of Langkawi, Kedah and Penang will have about 30 minutes to evacuate to safety. Following the United Nation Consumer Guideline emphasizing on the principal objective of consumer protection, it is apparent to be prepared for tsunami disaster aligned with the eight consumer rights and responsibilities for the right to safety, satisfaction of basic needs and right to a healthy environment. Thus it is vital for the affected consumers to be prepared for future tsunami disaster. This study therefore aimed to examine the factors influencing intention to prepare for future tsunami among the coastal residence located in tsunami risk areas. The aims of this study were to determine the influence of positive outcome expectancy, subjective norm, risk perception, sense of community, and trust towards the intention to prepare for future tsunami disasters among consumers in Batu Ferringhi and Balik Pulau area. The differences in the level of intention to prepare for future were examined between those who experience and did not experience the 2004 tsunami. This study utilized a cross-sectional research design using a survey method. A total of 503 respondents were chosen systematically and data gathered were analysed using SPSS version 22. Both genders, male and female were equally represented with a mean age of 44 years with and had an average household income of RM2222.00. Data indicated that the level of intention to prepare for tsunami disaster was moderate (M=3.72) from a scale of 1 (low) to 5 (high) with no significant difference in intention to prepare between those who experienced and did not experienced the 2004 tsunami. Subsequently, results from a multiple regression statistical analysis performed found that sense of community to be the most influential factor followed by subjective norm, trust, positive outcome expectancy and risk perception, explaining the 57% variance in intention to prepare. Sense of community, subjective norm and trust in agencies reflect the influence of the collectivistic culture whereby households plus communities have a central role in supporting and encouraging each other. The importance of community-based activities in forming the intention to prepare for tsunami is evident from the results obtained. In addition, consumers ought to be made aware of the risk of tsunami and that early preparedness can reduce the consequences of tsunami impacts. It is imperative to educate them on the importance of adopting protective measures such as acknowledging tsunami risk, knowing tsunami safe routes and evacuation zones, familiarization with tsunami warning messages and good emergency financial management through the involvement of household members, neighbours, community leaders and local agencies. Consequently, this also highlights the potential of adopting a community based disaster risk management as recommended by the United Nations International Strategy Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) which encompasses the cooperation between the local community and relevant stakeholders in preparing for future tsunami disaster.

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Additional Metadata

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Subject: Tsunamis - Malaysia
Subject: Tsunamis - Social aspects - Malaysia
Call Number: FEM 2016 2
Chairman Supervisor: Associate Professor Aini Mat Said, PhD
Divisions: Faculty of Human Ecology
Depositing User: Haridan Mohd Jais
Date Deposited: 03 Dec 2018 08:39
Last Modified: 03 Dec 2018 08:39
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