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Heavy metals content in low-priced toys


Syed Ismail, Sharifah Norkhadijah and Mohamad, Nurul Syifaa and Karuppiah, Karmegam and Zainal Abidin, Emilia and Rasdi, Irniza and Praveena, Sarva Mangala (2017) Heavy metals content in low-priced toys. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 12 (5). pp. 1499-1509. ISSN 1819-6608


This study determines the level of selected heavy metals in 42 toy samples and its health risk to children obtainedfrom various convenience shops in the urban area of central region Peninsular Malaysia. High Definition X-ray Fluorescence (HDXRF®) technique (Model 800701-01) was used to analyse the sample and the health risk was calculated using the USEPA method. Most of the samples in this study were detected with Zn (97%, N = 41), Sr (90%, N = 38) and Cu (79%, N = 33) and half of the samples were detected with Ni (64%, N = 27), Cr (59%, N=25), Ba (57%, N = 24) and Pb (50%, N = 21). The highest element detected in toys was Bain materials of polymer (2255.00 ppm), printed ink (1698.00±758.02 ppm), plastic (1160.82±898.06 ppm) and textile (1284.00 ppm). Plastic and metal toys contained the most heavy metals. Based on the level detected, Co and Ni pose carcinogenic health risk while Hg, Sb and Sn pose noncarcinogenic health risks in this study. Heavy metals in toys are varies by its material and bring a significant health risk to children.

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Additional Metadata

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine and Health Science
Publisher: Asian Research Publishing Network
Keywords: Heavy metals; Toys; Materials; Health risk; Children
Depositing User: Nurul Ainie Mokhtar
Date Deposited: 18 Mar 2019 04:02
Last Modified: 18 Mar 2019 04:02
URI: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/62021
Statistic Details: View Download Statistic

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