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Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of methanol extract of Clinacanthus nutans in mice


Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin and Abdul Rahim, Mohammad Hafiz and Mohtarrudin, Norhafizah and Abdul Kadir, Arifah and Cheema, Manraj Singh and Ahmad, Zuraini and Ching, Siew Mooi and Md Tohid, Siti Farah (2016) Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of methanol extract of Clinacanthus nutans in mice. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 13 (2). pp. 210-222. ISSN 0189-6016; ESSN: 2505-0044


Background: Clinacanthus nutans (C. nutans) Lindau (family Acanthaceae) is a shrub widely cultivated in the South East Asia region, including Malaysia. It has been traditionally used for treatment of various ailments including pain-mediated diseases. Various pharmacological activities of C. nutans have been reported except for its pain-relieving activity. This study was performed to evaluate the acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity of the methanol extract of Clinacanthus nutans (MECN) in male and female mice. Methods: In the acute toxicity study, a single dose of 5000 mg kg-1 of body weight MECN was administered orally, and was monitored for 14 consecutive days. In the sub-chronic toxicity study, the MECN was administered orally at doses of 50, 500, and 2500 mg kg-1 day-1 for 28 days. Results: Results showed that there were no clinical signs of toxicity, mortality and body weight changes in both acute and subchronic toxicity studies. There were no significant differences in relative organ weight, haematological parameters, and biochemical parameters; except for the creatinine level, which indicated significant (p<0.05) increase at doses of 500 and 2500 mg kg-1 day-1 for both sexes in the subchronic toxicity study. Necropsy, gross and histopathological observations, did not show any treatment-related signs of toxicity or abnormalities in both the acute and subchronic toxicity studies. Conclusion: In conclusion, the lethal oral dose (LD50) for the acute toxicity study is greater than 5000 mg kg-1 while for subchronic toxicity study; the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) is greater than 2500 mg kg-1 day-1.

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Additional Metadata

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine and Health Science
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
DOI Number: https://doi.org/10.21010/ajtcam.v13i2.25
Publisher: African Traditional, Herbal Medicine Supporters Initiative
Keywords: Clinacanthus nutans; Methanol extract; Acute oral toxicity; Subchronic oral toxicity; NOAEL; LD50
Depositing User: Nabilah Mustapa
Date Deposited: 07 Jun 2018 08:42
Last Modified: 07 Jun 2018 08:42
Altmetrics: http://www.altmetric.com/details.php?domain=psasir.upm.edu.my&doi=10.21010/ajtcam.v13i2.25
URI: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/60578
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