UPM Institutional Repository

Conductivity analysis of Bi4Ti3O12 ferroelectric ceramic: a comprehensive study from the dynamic aspects of hopping conduction


Wong, Yickjeng and Hassan, Jumiah and Hashim , Mansor and Chen, Sookien and Ismail, Ismayadi (2016) Conductivity analysis of Bi4Ti3O12 ferroelectric ceramic: a comprehensive study from the dynamic aspects of hopping conduction. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 9 (37). pp. 1-22. ISSN 0974-6846; ESSN: 0974-5645


Objectives: We focus solely on a comprehensive conductivity analysis of Bi4Ti3O12 ceramic, in a bid to bring seminal ideas for dielectric components, in particular frequency and temperature ranges. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The synthesis of Bi4Ti3O12 ceramic is based on a mechanical activation method. The following sintering at 1273 K ascertains the Bi4Ti3O12 appears to be of single phase crystallizes in orthorhombic form, whose conductivity is determined from the dielectric function in the context of Kramers-Kronig relation on which of this is measured in the frequency domain at varying temperatures. The evaluation of conductivity data is mainly in terms of activation energy. Findings: We find that the separately discussed dc and ac conductivities in similar manner are best isolated into two distinct temperature regions. Charge transport by hopping to the target localized states is the relevant conduction mechanism in bringing insights into the dynamic responses. Variable range and small polaron hopping models associated with the adiabatic small polaron are the decent choices, each of which explaining the dc conductions in these temperature regions. The former involves distant hops, whereas the latter denotes as nearest-neighbour hopping. The percolation treatments applied in the dc conductivity yield promising results if different percolation expressions are used. The correlation between dc and ac conductions for each temperature is irrefutably made through the Barton-Nakajima-Namikawa fitting. In frequency dependence ac regions, the thermally activated hopping carriers are transported in a correlated to a random manner between preferred sites. Performing a Summerfield ac scaling in these temperature regions leads to different scenarios in view of time-temperature superposition principle. Applications/Improvements: Further experiments are encouraged to support the hopping conduction mechanisms from another aspect in order to prompt the use as energy storage function in the electromagnetic application.

Download File

PDF (Abstract)
Conductivity analysis of Bi4Ti3O12 ferroelectric ceramic.pdf

Download (6kB) | Preview

Additional Metadata

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Faculty of Science
Institute of Advanced Technology
DOI Number: https://doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i37/83039
Publisher: Indian Society for Education and Environment
Keywords: Charge carriers; Conductivity; Bi4Ti3O12; Ferroelectric ceramic; Hopping conduction
Depositing User: Mohd Hafiz Che Mahasan
Date Deposited: 03 Nov 2017 08:55
Last Modified: 03 Nov 2017 08:55
Altmetrics: http://www.altmetric.com/details.php?domain=psasir.upm.edu.my&doi=10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i37/83039
URI: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/55358
Statistic Details: View Download Statistic

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item