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Methanolic extract of Clinacanthus nutans exerts antinociceptive activity via the opioid/nitric oxide-mediated, but cGMP-independent, pathways


Abdul Rahim, Mohammad Hafiz and Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin and Mohd Sani, Mohd Hijaz and Omar, Maizatul Hasyima and Yakob, Yusnita and Singh, Manraj and Cheema and Ching, Siew Mooi and Ahmad, Zuraini and Abdul Kadir, Arifah (2016) Methanolic extract of Clinacanthus nutans exerts antinociceptive activity via the opioid/nitric oxide-mediated, but cGMP-independent, pathways. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2016. art. no. 1494981. pp. 1-11. ISSN 1741-427X; ESSN: 1741-4288


The objectives of the present study were to determine the mechanisms of antinociceptive effect of methanol extract of Clinacanthus nutans (Acanthaceae) leaves (MECN) using various animal nociceptive models. The antinociceptive activity of orally administered 10% DMSO, 100 mg/kg acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), 5 mg/kg morphine, or MECN (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg) was determined using the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction (ACT), formalin-induced paw licking (FT), and hot plate tests (HPT). The role of opioid and nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO/cGMP) systems was also investigated. The results showed that MECN produced a significant () antinociceptive response in all nociceptive models with the recorded value of 279.3 mg/kg for the ACT, while, for the early and late phases of the FT, the value was >500 mg/kg or 227.7 mg/kg, respectively. This antinociceptive activity was fully antagonized by naloxone (a nonselective opioid antagonist) but was partially reversed by L-arginine (L-arg; a nitric oxide [NO] precursor), Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME; an NO synthase inhibitor), or their combinations thereof. In contrast, 1H-[,2,4]oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; a soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor) enhanced the extract’s antinociception. UHPLC analysis revealed the presence of several flavonoid-based compounds with antinociceptive action. In conclusion, MECN exerted the peripherally and centrally mediated antinociceptive activity via the modulation of the opioid/NO-mediated, but cGMP-independent, systems.

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Additional Metadata

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine and Health Science
DOI Number: https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/1494981
Publisher: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Keywords: Methanolic extract; Clinacanthus nutans; Antinociceptive activity; Opioid; Nitric oxide-mediated; cGMP-independent
Depositing User: Nurul Ainie Mokhtar
Date Deposited: 24 Apr 2018 07:21
Last Modified: 24 Apr 2018 07:21
Altmetrics: http://www.altmetric.com/details.php?domain=psasir.upm.edu.my&doi=10.1155/2016/1494981
URI: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/54798
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