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Heavy metals content in soils of Peninsular Malaysia grown with cocoa and in cocoa tissues


Ishak, Che Fauziah and Osman, Rozita and Darus, Siti Zauyah and Abdul Rahim, Anuar and Jusop, Shamshuddin (2001) Heavy metals content in soils of Peninsular Malaysia grown with cocoa and in cocoa tissues. Malaysian Journal of Soil Science, 5. pp. 47-58. ISSN 1394-7990


In a study of heavy metal distribution in soils grown with cocoa in Peninsular Malaysia, soil samples from 10 soil types were analyzed for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic C, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), available P and clay content. The soils developed over intermediate volcanic parent material (andesite) showed higher concentration of heavy metals compared to the alluvial soils at a depth of 0-20 cm. Total soil Ni and Zn are correlated with pH (P<0.01, r=0.27 and r=0.33, respectively), total soil Cd and Zn with EC (P<0.05, r=0.18 and P<0.01, r=0.38, respectively), total soil Cu and Zn with CEC (P<0.05, r=0.18 and P<0.01, r=0.37 respectively), total soil Cd with organic C (P<0.05, r=0.17), and total soil Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn with clay content (P<0.01, r=0.65; P<0.01, r=0.54; P<005, r=0.16; and, P<0.05, r=0.48, respectively). The concentrations of Cd, Cu and Ni in cocoa beans grown on soils developed from andesite was higher compared to those grown on alluvium. Meanwhile, for Cu and Zn concentration in cocoa beans, there was no significant difference between soils developed from andesite and alluvium. The concentration of heavy metals in soils tends to influence the concentration of heavy metals in cocoa tissues. Influence of P fertilization was exhibited by the significant correlations of Cd and Zn with extractable P (P<0.01, r=0.25 and P<0.01, r=0.40, respectively). For the Benta Series only, cadmium concentration in cocoa beans had reached the maximum permitted concentration (MPC) as defined by the Malaysian Food Act of 1983 and Food Regulations 1985. Zinc in cocoa beans, for some other soils, was either above or reached the MPC level.

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Additional Metadata

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Faculty of Agriculture
Publisher: Malaysian Society of Soil Science
Keywords: Cocoa beans; Heavy metals; Correlation study; Transfer coefficient; Maximum permitted concentrations
Depositing User: Nabilah Mustapa
Date Deposited: 30 Dec 2016 03:39
Last Modified: 30 Dec 2016 03:39
URI: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/49579
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