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Palm biochar-based sulphated zirconium (Zr-AC-HSO3) catalyst for methyl ester production from palm fatty acid distillate


Rashid, Umer and Soltani, Soroush and Choong, Thomas Shean Yaw and Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi and Ahmad, Junaid and Ngamcharussrivichai, Chawalit (2019) Palm biochar-based sulphated zirconium (Zr-AC-HSO3) catalyst for methyl ester production from palm fatty acid distillate. Catalysts, 9 (12). art. no. 1029. pp. 1-15. ISSN 2073-4344


A palm waste kernel shell biomass was converted into bio-based sulphonated activated carbon and further used for preparation of a sulphated zirconium-doped activated catalyst (Zr-AC-HSO3) by wet impregnation method. The structural, physicochemical, morphological, textural, and thermal characteristics of the synthesized Zr-AC-HSO3 catalyst were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area analysis, temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (TPD-NH3), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The catalytic activity of the 20 wt% Zr-AC-HSO3 catalyst was further evaluated for esterification of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD). This study achieved a maximum fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield of 94.3% and free fatty acid (FFA) conversion of 96.1% via the esterification over 20 wt% Zr-AC-HSO3 using 3 wt% catalyst concentration, 15:1 methanol:PFAD molar ratio at 75 °C for 3 h. The experiments to test for reusability showed that the spent catalyst was stable for five successive reaction cycles, with a FFA conversion of 80% in the fifth cycle, without additional treatment. The critical fuel features of the synthesized PFAD methyl ester were determined and were within the range of EN14214 and ASTM D6751 standards.

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Official URL or Download Paper: https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4344/9/12/1029

Additional Metadata

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering
Institute of Advanced Technology
DOI Number: https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9121029
Publisher: MDPI
Keywords: Sulfonated palm-based catalyst; Wet impregnation method; Palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD); Esterification; Fatty acid methyl ester production
Depositing User: Nabilah Mustapa
Date Deposited: 04 May 2020 15:53
Last Modified: 04 May 2020 15:53
Altmetrics: http://www.altmetric.com/details.php?domain=psasir.upm.edu.my&doi=10.3390/catal9121029
URI: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/38207
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