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Optimization of total phenolic and flavonoid contents of defatted pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed extract and its antioxidant properties


Zulkifli, Siti Atikah and Abd Gani, Siti Salwa and Zaidan, Uswatun Hasanah and Halmi, Mohd Izuan Effendi (2020) Optimization of total phenolic and flavonoid contents of defatted pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed extract and its antioxidant properties. Molecules, 25 (4). art. no. 787. pp. 1-17. ISSN 1420-3049


The present study was conducted to optimize extraction process for defatted pitaya seed extract (DPSE) adopting response surface methodology (RSM). A five-level central composite design was used to optimize total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothizoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) activities. The independent variables included extraction time (30–60 min), extraction temperature (40–80 °C) and ethanol concentration (60%–80%). Results showed that the quadratic polynomial equations for all models were significant at (p < 0.05), with non-significant lack of fit at p > 0.05 and R2 of more than 0.90. The optimized extraction parameters were established as follows: extraction time of 45 min, extraction temperature of 70 °C and ethanol concentration of 80%. Under these conditions, the recovery of TPC, TFC, and antioxidant activity based on FRAP and ABTS were 128.58 ± 1.61 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g sample, 9.805 ± 0.69 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g sample, 1.23 ± 0.03 mM Fe2+/g sample, and 91.62% ± 0.15, respectively. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) analysis identified seven chemical compounds with flavonoids constituting major composition of the DPSE.

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Official URL or Download Paper: https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/25/4/787

Additional Metadata

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Faculty of Agriculture
Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences
Halal Products Research Institute
DOI Number: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040787
Publisher: MDPI
Keywords: Defatted pitaya seed; Extraction; Phenolic content; Flavonoid content; Antioxidant activity; Response surface methodology
Depositing User: Nabilah Mustapa
Date Deposited: 03 May 2020 23:01
Last Modified: 03 May 2020 23:01
Altmetrics: http://www.altmetric.com/details.php?domain=psasir.upm.edu.my&doi=10.3390/molecules25040787
URI: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/38161
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