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Efficient and simultaneous chitosan-mediated removal of 11 mycotoxins from palm kernel cake


Pirouz, Atena Abbasi and Selamat, Jinap and Iqbal, Shahzad Zafar and Samsudin, Nik Iskandar Putra (2020) Efficient and simultaneous chitosan-mediated removal of 11 mycotoxins from palm kernel cake. Toxins, 12 (2). art. no. 115. pp. 1-14. ISSN 2072-6651


Mycotoxins are an important class of pollutants that are toxic and hazardous to animal and human health. Consequently, various methods have been explored to abate their effects, among which adsorbent has found prominent application. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) has recently been applied for the concurrent evaluation of multiple mycotoxins. This study investigated the optimization of the simultaneous removal of mycotoxins in palm kernel cake (PKC) using chitosan. The removal of 11 mycotoxins such as aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins (FB1 and FB2) and trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol (DON), HT-2 and T-2 toxin) from palm kernel cake (PKC) was studied. The effects of operating parameters such as pH (3–6), temperature (30–50 °C) and time (4–8 h) on the removal of the mycotoxins were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Response surface models obtained with R2 values ranging from 0.89–0.98 fitted well with the experimental data, except for the trichothecenes. The optimum point was obtained at pH 4, 8 h and 35 °C. The maximum removal achieved with chitosan for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, OTA, ZEA, FB1 and FB2 under the optimized conditions were 94.35, 45.90, 82.11, 84.29, 90.03, 51.30, 90.53 and 90.18%, respectively.

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Official URL or Download Paper: https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/12/2/115

Additional Metadata

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Faculty of Food Science and Technology
Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security
DOI Number: https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12020115
Publisher: MDPI
Keywords: Chitosan; Mycotoxins; Detoxification; LC-MS/MS; Optimization
Depositing User: Nabilah Mustapa
Date Deposited: 03 May 2020 22:59
Last Modified: 03 May 2020 22:59
Altmetrics: http://www.altmetric.com/details.php?domain=psasir.upm.edu.my&doi=10.3390/toxins12020115
URI: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/38155
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