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Supermagnetic nano-bifunctional catalyst from rice husk: synthesis, characterization and application for conversion of used cooking oil to biodiesel


Citation

Hazmi, Balkis and Rashid, Umer and Yap, Taufiq Yun Hin and Ibrahim, Mohd Lokman and Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi (2020) Supermagnetic nano-bifunctional catalyst from rice husk: synthesis, characterization and application for conversion of used cooking oil to biodiesel. Catalysts, 10 (2). art. no. 225. pp. 1-21. ISSN 2073-4344

Abstract

The present work investigated the biodiesel production from used cooking oil catalyzed by nano-bifunctional supermagnetic heterogeneous catalysts (RHC/K2O/Fe) derived from rice husk doped with K2O and Fe synthesized by the wet impregnation method. The synthesized catalysts (RHC/K2O/Fe) were characterized for crystallinity by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), total acidity and basicity using CO2/NH3-TPD, textural properties through Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), thermal stability via thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), functional group determination by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), surface morphology through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and magnetic properties by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The VSM result demonstrated that the super-paramagnetic catalyst (RHC/K2O-20%/Fe-5%) could be simply separated and regained after the reaction using an external magnetic field. The operating conditions such as catalyst loading, methanol/oil molar ratio, temperature, and reaction duration were studied. The screened RHC/K2O-20%/Fe-5% catalyst was selected for further optimization and the optimum reaction parameters found were 4 wt % of catalyst, a molar ratio of methanol/oil of 12:1, 4 h reaction duration, and 75 °C reaction temperature with a maximal yield of 98.6%. The reusability study and reactivation results revealed that the nano-bifunctional magnetic catalyst (RHC/K2O-20%/Fe-5%) could be preserved by high catalytic activity even after being reused five times.


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Additional Metadata

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Faculty of Science
Institute of Advanced Technology
DOI Number: https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10020225
Publisher: MDPI
Keywords: Rice husk; Nano-magnetic catalyst; Heterogeneous catalyst; Used cooking oil; Biodiesel
Depositing User: Nabilah Mustapa
Date Deposited: 03 May 2020 22:59
Last Modified: 03 May 2020 22:59
Altmetrics: http://www.altmetric.com/details.php?domain=psasir.upm.edu.my&doi=10.3390/catal10020225
URI: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/38152
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