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Hypertension among HIV-infected adults receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Malaysia


Hejazi, Nazisa and Huang, Mary Soo Lee and Khor, Geok Lin and Lee, Christopher Kwok Choong (2014) Hypertension among HIV-infected adults receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Malaysia. Global Journal of Health Science, 6 (2). pp. 58-71. ISSN 1916-9736; ESSN: 1916-9744


There are increasing researches about non-communicable disease such as elevated blood pressure among people living with HIV before and after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors among 340 HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy at a Malaysian public hospital providing HIV-related treatment. Data on socioeconomic background, anthropometry, medical history and dietary intake of the patients were collected. Hypertension is defined as blood pressure >=130/85 (mm Hg). Prevalence of hypertension was 45.60% (n=155) of which 86.5% of the hypertensive group were male (n=134). The results showed that increase in age (OR 1.051, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.024-1.078), higher body mass index (OR 1.18, 95%CI 1.106-2.71), bigger waist circumference (OR 1.18, 95%CI 1.106-2.71), higher waist-hip ratio (OR 1.070, 95%CI 1.034-1.106), higher fasting plasma glucose (OR 1.332, 95%CI 0.845-2.100) and percentage energy intake from protein >15 (OR 2.519, 95%CI 1.391-4.561) were significant risk factors for hypertension (p<0.001). After adjusting for other variables, increasing age (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.069 95%CI 1.016-1.124, p=0.010), being male (aOR 3.026, 95%CI 1.175-7.794, p=0.022) and higher body mass index (aOR 1.26, 95%CI 1.032-1.551, p=0.024) were independently associated with hypertension. None of the antiretroviral therapy and immunologic factors was linked to hypertension. In conclusion hypertension among PLHIV was linked to the well-known risk factors such as age, gender and body mass index. With HAART, people can live longer by making monitoring and control of some reversible factors, especially excessive weight gain for maintaining quality of life.

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Additional Metadata

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine and Health Science
DOI Number: https://doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v6n2p58
Publisher: Canadian Center of Science and Education
Keywords: Hypertension; HIV; HAART; ARV; Nutrition; Malaysia
Depositing User: Nabilah Mustapa
Date Deposited: 01 Feb 2016 02:34
Last Modified: 01 Feb 2016 02:34
Altmetrics: http://www.altmetric.com/details.php?domain=psasir.upm.edu.my&doi=10.5539/gjhs.v6n2p58
URI: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/37907
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