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Anaemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in Hospital Putrajaya


Chellappah Thambiah, Subashini and Samsudin, Intan Nureslyna and George, Elizabeth and Ranjit, Lydiar Kaur and Saat, Nur Syakila and Hussein, Zanariah and Mohd Noor, Nurain and Mohamad, Masni (2015) Anaemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in Hospital Putrajaya. Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences, 11 (1). pp. 49-61. ISSN 1675-8544


Patients with diabetes have an earlier onset and increased severity of anaemia compared to those with similar degree of renal impairment from other causes. Anaemia is associated with an increased risk of vascular complications. In this study, we determined the prevalence of anaemia in T2DM patients and its association with sociodemographic, clinical and laboratory parameters in an endocrine tertiary hospital in Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study using retrospective electronic data from January 2011 to December 2013 of 165 T2DM patients in Hospital Putrajaya. Data was analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 21.0 for Windows. The prevalence of anaemia was 39.4% and majority had normocytic normochromic (80%), mild (58.5%) anaemia. Majority were Malays (73.9%), aged below 60 with comparable gender percentage and long-standing, poorly-controlled DM [median fasting blood sugar (FBS) 8mmol/L; glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) 7.9%]. Using the KDIGO chronic kidney disease (CKD) staging system, 86% of these patients were in stages 3-5. Anaemic patients had a significantly higher serum urea, creatinine and a lower FBS, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) compared to non-anaemic patients. Anaemic patients with diabetic nephropathy had a significantly lower haemoglobin (Hb) compared to those without this complication (p=0.022). The sensitivity and specificity at a cut-off eGFR value of 38.3 ml/min/1.73 m2 (maximum Youden index = 0.462) was 66.7% and 79.5%, respectively to discriminate mild from moderate anaemia. This study shows that anaemia is already present in T2DM patients in Hospital Putrajaya at initial presentation to the specialist outpatient clinic and is significantly associated with CKD. Hence, it emphasises the obligatory need for routine and follow-up full blood count monitoring in T2DM patients in primary care as well as tertiary settings in Malaysia to enable early detection and aggressive correction of anaemia in preventing further complications.

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Additional Metadata

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine and Health Science
Publisher: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia
Keywords: Anaemia; Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); Chronic kidney disease (CKD); Diabetic nephropathy; Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)
Depositing User: Nabilah Mustapa
Date Deposited: 04 Aug 2015 12:19
Last Modified: 08 Sep 2015 02:14
URI: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/36439
Statistic Details: View Download Statistic

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