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The use of D-optimal mixture design in optimising okara soap formulation for stratum corneum application


Borhan, Farrah Payyadhah and Abd Gani, Siti Salwa and Shamsuddin, Rosnah (2014) The use of D-optimal mixture design in optimising okara soap formulation for stratum corneum application. The Scientific World Journal, 2014. art. no. 173979. pp. 1-8. ISSN 2356-6140; ESSN: 1537-744X

Abstract / Synopsis

Okara, soybean waste from tofu and soymilk production, was utilised as a natural antioxidant in soap formulation for stratum corneum application. D-optimal mixture design was employed to investigate the influence of the main compositions of okara soap containing different fatty acid and oils (virgin coconut oil A (24–28% w/w), olive oil B (15–20% w/w), palm oil C (6–10% w/w), castor oil D (15–20% w/w), cocoa butter E (6–10% w/w), and okara F (2–7% w/w)) by saponification process on the response hardness of the soap. The experimental data were utilized to carry out analysis of variance (ANOVA) and to develop a polynomial regression model for okara soap hardness in terms of the six design factors considered in this study. Results revealed that the best mixture was the formulation that included 26.537% A, 19.999% B, 9.998% C, 16.241% D, 7.633% E, and 7.000% F. The results proved that the difference in the level of fatty acid and oils in the formulation significantly affects the hardness of soap. Depending on the desirable level of those six variables, creation of okara based soap with desirable properties better than those of commercial ones is possible.

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Additional Metadata

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Faculty of Agriculture
Faculty of Engineering
Faculty of Science
Halal Products Research Institute
DOI Number:
Publisher: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Keywords: D-optimal mixture design; Okara soap formulation; Stratum corneum application
Depositing User: Nurul Ainie Mokhtar
Date Deposited: 10 Feb 2016 16:31
Last Modified: 10 Feb 2016 16:31
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