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Optimizing Bi2O3 and TiO2 to achieve the maximum non-linear electrical property of ZnO low voltage varistor


Abdollahi, Yadollah and Zakaria, Azmi and Aziz, Raba'ah Syahidah and Ahmad Tamili, Siti Norazilah and Matori, Khamirul Amin and Mohd Shahrani, Nuraine Mariana and Mohd Sidek, Nurhidayati and Dorraj, Masoumeh and Moosavi, Seyedehmaryam (2013) Optimizing Bi2O3 and TiO2 to achieve the maximum non-linear electrical property of ZnO low voltage varistor. Chemistry Central Journal, 7. art. no. 137. pp. 1-10. ISSN 1752-153X


In fabrication of ZnO-based low voltage varistor, Bi2O3 and TiO2 have been used as former and grain growth enhancer factors respectively. Therefore, the molar ratio of the factors is quit important in the fabrication. In this paper, modeling and optimization of Bi2O3 and TiO2 was carried out by response surface methodology to achieve maximized electrical properties. The fabrication was planned by central composite design using two variables and one response. To obtain actual responses, the design was performed in laboratory by the conventional methods of ceramics fabrication. The actual responses were fitted into a valid second order algebraic polynomial equation. Then the quadratic model was suggested by response surface methodology. The model was validated by analysis of variance which provided several evidences such as high F-value (153.6), very low P-value (<0.0001), adjusted R-squared (0.985) and predicted R-squared (0.947). Moreover, the lack of fit was not significant which means the model was significant.

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Additional Metadata

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Institute of Advanced Technology
Faculty of Science
DOI Number: https://doi.org/10.1186/1752-153X-7-137
Publisher: Chemistry Central
Keywords: Bi2O3; Modeling; Optimization; RSM; TiO2; ZnO-varistor.
Depositing User: Azizan Arshad
Date Deposited: 20 Aug 2014 02:58
Last Modified: 07 Sep 2015 02:03
Altmetrics: http://www.altmetric.com/details.php?domain=psasir.upm.edu.my&doi=10.1186/1752-153X-7-137
URI: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/30813
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