UPM Institutional Repository

Reproductive characteristic of the female laboratory rat


Hamid, Huda Yahia and Abu Bakar @ Zakaria, Md Zuki (2013) Reproductive characteristic of the female laboratory rat. African Journal of Biotechnology, 12 (19). art. no. 073343722578 . pp. 2510-2514. ISSN 1684–5315


The laboratory rat is widely used in research studies as a model of mammalian health and disease. This review provides the basic facts about female rat reproduction and highlights the reproductive characteristics which make the rat a preferred animal model for research on reproduction. Rats have short estrous cycle, lasting four to five days. The estrous cycle consists of four stages known as proestrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus. Phases of the estrous cycle can be detected by observing behavioral changes or examining vaginal cytology. Detection of sperm in vaginal smear is an excellent predictor of pregnancy in rats. Implantation is initiated on day 5 and completed by day 7 of pregnancy. Gestation takes 21 to 23 days from copulation to parturition. Short estrous cycle and gestation period make the rat an ideal animal model for research on reproduction.

Download File

[img] PDF
Restricted to Repository staff only

Download (230kB)

Additional Metadata

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
DOI Number: https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB12.2046
Publisher: Academic Journals
Keywords: Rat; Estrous cycle; Pregnancy detection; Fertilization; Embryonic development; Implantation; Gestation; Weaning
Depositing User: Nabilah Mustapa
Date Deposited: 05 May 2015 02:12
Last Modified: 10 Nov 2017 02:39
Altmetrics: http://www.altmetric.com/details.php?domain=psasir.upm.edu.my&doi=10.5897/AJB12.2046
URI: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/29857
Statistic Details: View Download Statistic

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item