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Antioxidative Potential of Four Extracts of Haruan, Channa Striatus (Bloch) an Indigenous Malaysian Snakehead Fish


Che Ku Daud, Che Ku Dahlan (2011) Antioxidative Potential of Four Extracts of Haruan, Channa Striatus (Bloch) an Indigenous Malaysian Snakehead Fish. Masters thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia.


Channa striatus, Haruan is one of the most popular freshwater fish in Malaysia for many medicinal proposed since the past few decades especially in reducing pain and inflammation as well as wound healing. This study was aimed to investigate the antioxidative potentials of C. striatus extracts obtained by different methods of extraction including the proximate, minerals contents and to determine the amino and fatty acids compositions. Four types of extracts have been used namely Haruan Traditional Malay Extract (HTE); upper and lower phase, aqueous extract (1:1, w/v), and chloroform methanol extract. An established commercial C. striatus essence was used as a reference extract. Energy dispersive x-ray variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (EDX-VPSEM) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) were used to determine and identify the mineral elements in the fresh fillet sample. Amino and fatty acids of extracts were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC) techniques, respectively. Antioxidant capacity of all samples was assessed using photosensitized chemiluminesence (PCL) method, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and β-carotene–linoleate bleaching (BCL) assays. The proximate analysis revealed that the moisture content, crude protein, ash and crude lipid of Haruan fresh fillet were 75 ~ 85%, 20.85%, 0.98 ~ 0.99% and 2.49%, respectively. The elemental analysis using EDX-VPSEM showed that the sample contain many important macro minerals including Ca (21.29 ± 8.36) mg/100, K (230.74 ± 22.65) mg/100, Mg (24.05 ± 1.05) mg/100 and Na (69.20 ± 14.44) mg/100, and trace minerals; Zn (7.08 ± 0.44) μg/g, Fe (17.42 ± 1.53) μg/g, Cu (0.79 ± 0.37) μg/g, Cr (0.12 ± 0.11) μg/g and Se (7.27 ± 0.77) μg/g. The extracts contained at least 17 amino acids with the dominantly were glutamic acid, glycine, leusine, aspartic acid, proline, alanine and arginine with values 1.87 – 43.13 mg/g, 21.80 – 80.85 mg/g, 7.85 – 40.19 mg/g, 13.85 – 44.07 mg/g, 9.49 – 45.46 mg/g, 11.32 – 35.25 mg/g and 5.99 – 21.79 mg/g, respectively. The highest percentage of fatty acids present in the extracts was palmitic acid; 3.53 – 26.84% of total lipid. The others major fatty acids were stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid with values 3.25 – 15.90%, 1.40 – 27.68%, 0.51 – 7.82% of total lipid,respectively. HTE also found to have extra 4 bioactive compounds which been labelled with 1, 2, 3 and 4 after direct injection to HPLC method. The antioxidant activity of the extracts based on PCL method was range between 1.14 – 1.86 μmol/mL (ascorbic acid equivalent) and followed the order of HTE Lower phase > chloroform methanol extract > commercial Haruan essence > aqueous extract >HTE Upper phase. The ability to reduce ferric ion based on FRAP assay was not significant amongst C. striatus extracts with value in range 302.48 - 429.81 μM Fe2+/g reducing capacity, but significantly different to the standards used. The highest FRAP value was HTE upper phase (429.81 ± 0.88 μM Fe2+/g dry weight sample), followed by HTE Lower phase > aqueous extract (1:1 w/v) > commercial Haruan essence > chloroform methanol extract. The antioxidant activity of extracts based on the BCL method followed the order of HTE Upper phase > commercial Haruan essence > aqueous extract (1:1 w/v) > HTE Lower phase > Chloroform methanol extract. All the samples in PCL and FRAP assays showed no significant difference but have significant difference in BCL assay at p < 0.05. Based on results of the three antioxidant capacity assays, antioxidant capacity all C. striatus extracts been studied were in the order of HTE Upper phase > HTE Lower phase > aqueous extract (1:1 w/v) > commercial Haruan essence > chloroform methanol extract. Results indicated that different assays revealed different antioxidant capacity. In conclusion, Channa striatus Haruan extracts were proven to have high antioxidant activities. Besides, the extracts were shown to have hydrophilic antioxidative properties. Thus the extract may recommend as biopharmaceutical product or as a food supplement which providing natural antioxidant for improving and maintaining body’s health.

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Additional Metadata

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Subject: Antioxidants
Call Number: FPSK(m) 2011 37
Chairman Supervisor: Professor Abdul Manan Mat Jais, PhD
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine and Health Science
Notes: Professor Abdul Manan Mat Jais, PhD
Depositing User: Haridan Mohd Jais
Date Deposited: 26 Jan 2022 04:50
Last Modified: 26 Jan 2022 04:50
URI: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/21602
Statistic Details: View Download Statistic

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