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Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in Malaysia: A national study of 16,440 subjects.


Gyanchand Rampal, Lekhraj Rampal and Md. Zain, Azhar and Rampal, Sanjay and Rahman, Abdul Rashid (2008) Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in Malaysia: A national study of 16,440 subjects. Public Health, 122. pp. 11-18. ISSN 0033-3506, ESSN: 1476-5616


Study design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in all states of Malaysia to determine the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension. A stratified two-stage cluster sampling design with proportional allocation was used. Methods: Trained nurses obtained two blood pressure measurements from each subject. Hypertension was defined as mean systolic blood pressure 4140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure490 mmHg, or a self-reported diagnosis of hypertension and taking antihypertensive medication. All data were analysed using Stata 9.2 software and took the complex survey design into account. A two-sided P-value of o0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The overall prevalence of hypertension for subjects aged X15 years was 27.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 26.9–28.8). The prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher in males (29.6%, 95% CI 28.3–31.0) compared with females (26.0%, 95% CI 25.0–27.1). Multivariate logistic regression showed that the odds of having hypertension increased with increasing age, in males, in subjects with a family history of hypertension, with increasing body mass index, in non-smokers and with decreasing levels of education. Only 34.6% of the subjects with hypertension were aware of their hypertensive status, and 32.4 were taking antihypertensive medication. Amongst the latter group, only 26.8% had their blood pressure under control. The prevalence of hypertension amongst those aged X30 years has increased from 32.9% in 1996 to 40.5% in 2004. Conclusion: In Malaysia, the prevalence of hypertension is high, but levels of awareness, treatment and control are low. There is an urgent need for a comprehensive integrated population-based intervention programme to ameliorate the growing problem of hypertension in Malaysians.

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Additional Metadata

Item Type: Article
Subject: Hypertension - Cross-sectional study - Malaysia.
Subject: Hypertension - Treatment - Malaysia.
Subject: Hypertension - Prevention and control.
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine and Health Science
DOI Number: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2007.05.008
Publisher: WB Saunders
Keywords: Hypertension; Epidemiology; Prevalence; Awareness; Treatment; Control; Malaysia.
Depositing User: Raja Norazlinda Raja Azenam
Date Deposited: 16 May 2013 00:45
Last Modified: 30 Nov 2015 07:36
Altmetrics: http://www.altmetric.com/details.php?domain=psasir.upm.edu.my&doi=10.1016/j.puhe.2007.05.008
URI: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/16336
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