UPM Institutional Repository

The Pictorial Fit-Frail Scale: developing a visual scale to assess frailty


Theou, Olga and Andrew, Melissa and Ahip, Sally Suriani and Squires, Emma and McGarrigle, Lisa and Blodgett, Joanna M. and Goldstein, Judah and Hominick, Kathryn and Godin, Judith and Hougan, Glen and Armstrong, Joshua J. and Wallace, Lindsay and Shariff Ghazali, Sazlina and Moorhouse, Paige and Fay, Sherri and Visvanathan, Renuka and Rockwood, Kenneth (2019) The Pictorial Fit-Frail Scale: developing a visual scale to assess frailty. Canadian Geriatrics Journal, 22 (2). pp. 64-74. ISSN 1925-8348


Background: Standardized frailty assessments are needed for early identification and treatment. We aimed to develop a frailty scale using visual images, the Pictorial Fit-Frail Scale (PFFS), and to examine its feasibility and content validity. Methods: In Phase 1, a multidisciplinary team identified domains for measurement, operationalized impairment levels, and re-viewed visual languages for the scale. In Phase 2, feedback was sought from health professionals and the general public. In Phase 3, 366 participants completed preliminary testing on the revised draft, including 162 UK paramedics, and rated the scale on feasibility and usability. In Phase 4, following translation into Malay, the final prototype was tested in 95 participants in Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo. Results: The final scale incorporated 14 domains, each conceptualized with 3–6 response levels. All domains were rated as “understood well” by most participants (range 64–94%). Percentage agreement with positive statements regarding appearance, feasibility, and usefulness ranged from 66% to 95%. Overall feedback from health-care professionals supported its content validity. Conclusions: The PFFS is comprehensive, feasible, and appears generalizable across countries, and has face and content validity. Investigation into the reliability and predictive validity of the scale is currently underway.

Download File

Text (Abstract)
The Pictorial Fit-Frail Scale developing a visual scale to assess frailty.pdf

Download (49kB) | Preview

Additional Metadata

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine and Health Science
DOI Number: https://doi.org/10.5770/cgj.22.357
Publisher: Canadian Geriatrics Society
Keywords: Frailty; Assessment; Feasibility; Content validity; Pictorial Fit-Frail Scale
Depositing User: Nabilah Mustapa
Date Deposited: 07 Oct 2019 08:31
Last Modified: 07 Oct 2019 08:31
Altmetrics: http://www.altmetric.com/details.php?domain=psasir.upm.edu.my&doi=10.5770/cgj.22.357
URI: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/15578
Statistic Details: View Download Statistic

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item