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Program planning model: a theoretical guide for designing online distance education courses


Abd Rahim, Nur Aira (2018) Program planning model: a theoretical guide for designing online distance education courses. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8 (12). pp. 46-67. ISSN 2222-6990


Planning a university-based distance education was once considered a marginalized practice in higher education institutions (HEIs). However, many changes have since taken place in HEIs, not only from procedural and technological aspects, but also involving structural and cultural systemic changes in the existing organizational and educational practices. Universities are now expected to deliver courses not only in traditional face-to-face format, but to also inculcate various forms of distance and flexible learning as part of their course delivery to the students. Understanding context is an important aspect in program planning. By assessing the current context of distance education practice in higher education, this paper seeks to propose a program planning model as a theoretical guide for supporting the development of a successful learning design for distance learners, particularly for undergraduate courses. The first part of this paper discussed a selected program planning model from the adult education literature. The second part of this paper elaborates each of the planning component as supported the distance education literature. This paper concludes with a proposed skeletal model, specifically for designing online courses at the end.

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Additional Metadata

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Faculty of Educational Studies
DOI Number: https://doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i12/4990
Publisher: Human Resource Management Academic Research Society
Keywords: Distance education; Program planning; Online course design; Instructional design; Online instruction
Depositing User: Nabilah Mustapa
Date Deposited: 08 Apr 2019 08:47
Last Modified: 08 Apr 2019 08:47
Altmetrics: http://www.altmetric.com/details.php?domain=psasir.upm.edu.my&doi=10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i12/4990
URI: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/14453
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