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Dietary exposure to heterocyclic amines in high-temperature cooked meat and fish in Malaysia


Akanda, Md. Jahurul Haque and Selamat, Jinap and Ang, Seah Jing and Abdul Hamid, Azizah and Hajeb, Parvaneh and Lioe, Hanifah Nuryani and Sarker, Md. Zaidul Islam (2010) Dietary exposure to heterocyclic amines in high-temperature cooked meat and fish in Malaysia. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 27 (8). pp. 1060-1071. ISSN 0265-203X; ESSN: 1464-5122


The intake of heterocyclic amines is influenced by the amount and type of meat and fish ingested, frequency of consumption, cooking methods, cooking temperature, and duration of cooking. In this study, the dietary intake of heterocyclic amines in Malaysia and their main sources were investigated. Forty-two samples of meat and fish were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector to determine the concentration of the six predominant heterocyclic amines, namely: 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoline(MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), 2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (7,8-DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Dietary intake data were obtained using a food-frequency questionnaire when interviewing 600 Malaysian respondents. The level of total heterocyclic amines in food samples studies ranged from not detected to 38.7 ng g(-1). The average daily intake level of heterocyclic amine was 553.7 ng per capita day(-1). The intake of PhIP was the highest, followed by MeIQx and MeIQ. The results reveal that fried and grilled chicken were the major dietary source of heterocyclic amines in Malaysia. However, the heterocyclic amine intake by the Malaysian population was lower than those reported from other regions.

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Additional Metadata

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Faculty of Food Science and Technology
DOI Number: https://doi.org/10.1080/19440041003801190
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Keywords: Exposure assessment; Heterocyclic amines; Cooked foods
Depositing User: Khairil Ridzuan Khahirullah
Date Deposited: 09 Oct 2013 06:31
Last Modified: 21 Oct 2019 07:25
Altmetrics: http://www.altmetric.com/details.php?domain=psasir.upm.edu.my&doi=10.1080/19440041003801190
URI: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/14058
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