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Utilisation of oil palm’s empty fruit bunch spikelets for oil-spill removal


Puasa, Nurul Aini and Ahmad, Siti Aqlima and Zakaria, Nur Nadhirah and Shaharuddin, Noor Azmi and Abdul Khalil, Khalilah and Azmi, Alyza Azzura and Gomez-Fuentes, Claudio and Merican, Faradina and Zulkharnain, Azham and Kok, Yih-Yih (2022) Utilisation of oil palm’s empty fruit bunch spikelets for oil-spill removal. Agronomy, 12 (2). pp. 1-14. ISSN 2073-4395


Agricultural sorbents have received attention for their effectiveness in oil removal. In Malaysia, oil palm’s empty fruit bunch (EFB) spikelets are an abundant agricultural waste that provides a non-toxic, renewable resource of cellulosic materials. In this study, the effectiveness of EFB spikelets to remove oil spills from seawater pollution in a filter system was investigated and the best optimisation approach for filtering conditions was determined. Experiments for oil spill clean-up were performed using a filter-based oil sorption system with a series of conditions such as temperature, time, packing density, and oil concentration to evaluate sorption capacity, oil and water absorbed efficiency. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to characterise the physicochemical properties of untreated and treated EFB fibres. Based on one-factor-at -a-time (OFAT) analysis conducted at 160 °C for 30 min on 0.1 g/cm3 of packing density containing 25% diesel, 8.667 mL of oil and 5 mL of water was absorbed. In response surface methodology (RSM), the three parameters of temperature, packing density and diesel concentration were observed as significant. From RSM fitting model analysis, the predicted value obtained for both oil and water absorbed were 8.805 and 5.213 mL, respectively. The experimental RSM values of 9 and 5 mL of oil and water absorbed were obtained. The result demonstrated the validity of the model as the experimental RSM values were close to the RSM model’s prediction. As compared to OFAT, the RSM method is more efficient in oil removal. This research contributes to a better knowledge of the usage of a natural sorbent as a method of diesel pollution remediation.

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Additional Metadata

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences
Institute of Plantation Studies
Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products
DOI Number: https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12020535
Publisher: MDPI AG
Keywords: Agriculture waste; Oil spills; Spikelets; Absorbed; Treated; Agriculture; Oil palm; Empty fruit bunch spikelets; Oil-spill removal; Environmental remediation; Sustainable solution; Elaeis guineensis; Manjung
Depositing User: Mr. Mohamad Syahrul Nizam Md Ishak
Date Deposited: 12 Mar 2024 09:12
Last Modified: 12 Mar 2024 09:12
Altmetrics: http://www.altmetric.com/details.php?domain=psasir.upm.edu.my&doi=10.3390/agronomy12020535
URI: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/102567
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