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Indonesian Mangrove Sonneratia caseolaris leaves ethanol extract is a potential super antioxidant and anti Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus drug


Audah, Kholis Abdurachim and Ettin, Jufendi and Darmadi, Jason and Norma Nur Azizah and Amalda Siti Anisa and Hermawan, Tedi Dwi Fauzi and Conny Riana Tjampakasari and Heryanto, Rudi and Ismail, Intan Safinar and Batubara, Irmanida (2022) Indonesian Mangrove Sonneratia caseolaris leaves ethanol extract is a potential super antioxidant and anti Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus drug. Molecules, 27 (23). art. no. 8369. pp. 1-19. ISSN 1431-5165; ESSN:1420-3049


Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an S. aureus strain that has developed resistance against ß-lactam antibiotics, resulting in a scarcity of a potent cure for treating Staphylococcus infections. In this study, the anti-MRSA and antioxidant activity of the Indonesian mangrove species Sonneratia caseolaris, Avicennia marina, Rhizophora mucronata, and Rhizophora apiculata were studied. Disk diffusion, DPPH, a brine shrimp lethality test, and total phenolic and flavonoid assays were conducted. Results showed that among the tested mangroves, ethanol solvent-based S. caseolaris leaves extract had the highest antioxidant and anti-MRSA activities. An antioxidant activity assay showed comparable activity when compared to ascorbic acid, with an IC50 value of 4.2499 ± 3.0506 ppm and 5.2456 ± 0.5937 ppm, respectively, classifying the extract as a super-antioxidant. Moreover, S. caseolaris leaves extract showed the highest content of strongly associated antioxidative and antibacterial polyphenols, with 12.4% consisting of nontoxic flavonoids with the minimum inhibitory concentration of the ethanol-based S. caseolaris leaves extract being approximately 5000 ppm. LC-MS/MS results showed that phenolic compounds such as azelaic acid and aspirin were found, as well as flavonoid glucosides such as isovitexin and quercitrin. This strongly suggested that these compounds greatly contributed to antibacterial and antioxidant activity. Further research is needed to elucidate the interaction of the main compounds in S. caseolaris leaves extract in order to confirm their potential either as single or two or more compounds that synergistically function as a nontoxic antioxidant and antibacterial against MRSA.

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Official URL or Download Paper: https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/27/23/8369

Additional Metadata

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Institute of Bioscience
DOI Number: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27238369
Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Keywords: MRSA; Mangrove; Sonneratia caseolaris; Bioactive compound; Disk diffusion; Antibacterial activity; Super-antioxidant; Phytochemical
Depositing User: Ms. Che Wa Zakaria
Date Deposited: 22 Sep 2023 23:28
Last Modified: 22 Sep 2023 23:28
Altmetrics: http://www.altmetric.com/details.php?domain=psasir.upm.edu.my&doi=10.3390/molecules27238369
URI: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/101875
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