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Development of a STEM self-efficacy scale for Malaysian primary school children: a validity and reliability study


Wong, Annie Kai Sze and Che Hassan, Norlizah and Wan Jaafar, Wan Marzuki and Ahmad, Nor Aniza and Mohamad Arsad, Nurazidawati (2022) Development of a STEM self-efficacy scale for Malaysian primary school children: a validity and reliability study. De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines., 22 (1). pp. 47-59. ISSN 0119-8386


This study aims to examine the psychometric properties of the Malay language version of the STEM Efficacy for Children Scale (SECS). This initiative involved 389 primary school children aged 10–11 in Klang Valley, Selangor, Malaysia. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to identify the underlying factors within 16 items in SECS, followed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to determine the model and reliability of the scale. Based on EFA, SECS managed to capture three factors related to STEM, namely, efficacy in learning science and mathematics, as well as efficacy in the application of engineering. SECS obtained a high Cronbach’s alpha index (>0.8), and CFA confirmed that the model provided a good fit for the data collected. The average variance extracted demonstrated that all constructs in the model were >.50, while the composite reliability was >.80. These findings verify that the scale obtained good internal consistency. Therefore, the analysis proved that SECS is considered reliable and valid in capturing STEM efficacy among primary school children. The scale is expected to offer useful insights for educators, schools, and the government in their policy planning and execution concerning STEM teaching and learning at the primary school level.

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Additional Metadata

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Faculty of Educational Studies
Faculty of Human Ecology
Publisher: De La Salle University Publishing House
Keywords: STEM education; Primary school; Efficacy; STEM Efficacy for Children Scale (SECS); Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA); Exploratory factor analysis (EFA)
Depositing User: Ms. Nur Faseha Mohd Kadim
Date Deposited: 09 Oct 2023 18:43
Last Modified: 09 Oct 2023 18:43
URI: http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/100602
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