Application of Sago Starch in Instant Noodles
Hampden, Noramina (2001) Application of Sago Starch in Instant Noodles. Masters thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia.
A study was conducted to investigate the effects of utilizing sago starch in the preparation of instant noodles. The first aspect of the study was to observe the effects of partial substitution of native sago starch on the amylograph profiles of the composite flours and the textural quality of the instant noodles. From the study, it was concluded that the instant noodles produced using native sago starch were of inferior quality in terms of colour, cooking losses, texture and sensory acceptability in comparison to the control which was prepared from 100% wheat flour. However, of all the wheat flour/sago starch blends, the most acceptable in terms of colour and texture from both instrumental and sensory assessment was the sample that was substituted with 20% and below. The second aspect of this study was to determine whether the different types of firming agents could improve the textural quality of the instant noodles produced. The firming agents that were used in the study were alkali mixtures of potassium and sodium carbonate, guar gum and potassium alum. The composite flour used was at the ratio of 80% wheat flour to 20% sago starch. Based on the results, the use of the alkali mixture or guar gum between the range of 0.5% to l.0% concentrations produced noodles that have improved noodle colour and strength, in terms of firmness and elasticity, consequently giving a more acceptable product compared to the addition of potassium alum. Potassium alum can be a potential firming additive but has to be used at concentrations of more than 1%. However, the use of potassium alum at more than 1% levels was not studied. Finally, the last part of the°-study- involved an investigation on the effect of partially replacing the wheat flour in the instant noodle preparation with modified sago starch on the textural quality of the instant noodle. The phosphorylated sago starch PSS 1 was prepared in the laboratory using a mixture of 5% sodium tripolyphosphate and 2% sodium trimetaphosphate at pH 9.5 at a temperature of 13 5°C for 2 hours whereas a physically modified sago starch NMS22 was provided by a sago starch company. The replacement of wheat flour with PSS1 (phosphorylated sago starch) and NMS22 up to 35% improved the textural quality of the sago starch substituted wheat noodles. The resulting noodles became more firm and elastic when cooked. Noodles with PSS1 were preferred since there is a reduced cooking loss even at a higher substitution level and less sticky during cooking. Otherwise, the type and the quantity of modified starches did not affect the overall acceptability of the noodles up to 35% replacement since only the colour was significantly affected at substitution levels greater than 35%.
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