Citation
Toh, Sing Poh
(2008)
Proving KochenSpecker Theorem Using Projection Measurement and Positive OperatorValued Measure.
PhD thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia.
Abstract / Synopsis
One of the main theorems on the impossibility of hidden variables in quantum mechanics is KochenSpecker theorem (KS). This theorem says that any hidden variable theory that satisfies quantum mechanics must be contextual. More specifically, it asserts that, in Hilbert space of dimension ≥ 3, it is impossible to associate definite numerical values, 1 or 0, with every projection operator Pm, in such a way that, if a set of commuting Pm satisfies 1=ΣmP, the corresponding values will also satisfy . Since the first proof of Kochen and Specker using 117 vectors in R3, there were many attempts to reduce the number of vector either via conceiving ingenious models or extending the system being considered to higher dimension. By considering eight dimensional three qubits system, we found a state dependent proof that requires only five vectors. The state that we assign value of 1 is the ray that arises from intersection of two planes. The recent advancements show that the KS theorem proof can be extended to two dimensional quantum system through generalized measurement represented by positive operatorvalued measured (POVM). In POVMs the number of available outcomes of a measurement may be higher than the dimensionality of the Hilbert space and Noutcome generalized measurement is represented by Nelement POVM which consists of N positive semidefinite operators {}dE that sum to identity. Each pair of elements is not mutually orthogonal if the number of outcome of measurements is bigger than the dimensionality. In terms of POVM, KochenSpecker theorem asserts that and could not be satisfied for . We developed a general model that enables us to generate different sizes of the POVM for the proof of the KochenSpecker theorem. We show that the current simplest Nakamura model is in fact a special case of our model. W also provide another model which is as simple as the Nakamura’s but consists of different sets of POVM.
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