Aerobic Bacteria Abundance and Mineral Elements Status in Aged and New Culture Ponds of Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus Monodon)
Ismaun, Hamidah (2006) Aerobic Bacteria Abundance and Mineral Elements Status in Aged and New Culture Ponds of Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus Monodon). Masters thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia.
The shrimp farming in Malaysia is a rapidly developing industry. However, in recent years, the production of cultured shrimp has decreased due to the unsustainable farming practices that lead to outbreaks of diseases. Thus, a comparative study was carried out to analyze the bacterial abundance in aged and new culture ponds of Penaeus monodon situated in Merlimau, Malacca. The water quality parameters of the pond, the bacterial levels and the mineral element status of water and sediment were examined at intervals of 30 days for two crop cycles. Results showed that the water quality parameters remained within the optimum range for shrimp culture. The total bacterial levels (Vibrio and aerobic bacteria) ranged from 103 to 105 CFUmL-1 in water and 103 to 106 CFUg-1 in sediment. The ANOVA analysis showed that the Vibrio and aerobic bacteria levels in water and sediment samples were significantly higher (p<0.05) in new pond compared to aged pond. The sediment of both aged and new ponds recorded higher values of bacterial level than water and demonstrated a general trend of increase bacterial level with the progress of the culture period. The results also showed that there is no clear pattern of bacterial level between crop cycles. Seven genera of bacteria were identified by using API® 20E, API® 50 CHB and MicrogenTM GN-ID identification commercial kits, namely Vibrio, Bacillus, Moraxella, Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Pasteurella and Staphylococcus. Six major elements (Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Fe) and 14 trace elements (V, Cr, Co, Cu, Se, As, Pb, Mn, Cd, Sb, Zn, Ti, Ni, Ag) were detected using INAA, ICP-MS methods in both water and sediment from aged and new ponds. Results showed that the major elements concentrations in water and sediment from aged and new ponds were quite similar. The trace element concentrations in water and sediment from aged and new ponds were also quite similar. The results of correlation coefficients showed that water quality parameters and mineral elements concentrations contribute towards the variance of bacterial level. The data collected during this study could provide background information for further research on the mineral elements in penaeid brackish water culture ponds in Malaysia.
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