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Acute toxicity and safety assessment of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) leaf extract in rats

Anyanji, Victor Uchenna and Mohamed, Suhaila and Bejo, Mohd Hair (2013) Acute toxicity and safety assessment of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) leaf extract in rats. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 7 (16). pp. 1022-1029. ISSN 1996-0875

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Catechin-rich oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) leaf extract (OPLE) possesses good anti-diabetic, anti-hypertension, antioxidant, organ-protective, cardiovascular properties and other health benefits. Previous sub-chronic daily supplement of 500 mg kg-1 body weight (bw) for 3 months in rats showed no significant adverse effects. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the acute toxicity of the OPLE. The acute toxicity study was conducted by administering to the rats a single dose of either 2 or 5 g kg-1 bw. General behavior, body weights, other adverse effects and mortality were monitored for up to 14 days. Total white blood cells (WBC), lymphocyte, red blood cell (RBC) counts, hemoglobin concentrations and packed cell volume (PCV) were determined at 0, 1, 3, 7 and 14 days. Liver and kidney function markers were monitored and the effects on the essential organs were examined histologically. The no-observed adverse effects (NOAE) were seen in the 2 g dose, while at the 5 g dose, behavioral changes, grooming, tachycardia, heavy breathing and weakness lasted for 2 h. The 5 g dose also caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction in RBC, hemoglobin and PCV although there was indifference in lymphocyte and WBC counts. Liver function markers and histology showed hepatocyte damage especially at day 7 in the 5 g dose, but there was partial recovery by the 14th day. The kidneys showed no significant changes. There was no death even at the 5 g dose, and the acute toxic injuries appeared reversible because the rats gradually recovered. In view of the NOAE dose of 2 g kg-1, the OPLE at the normal dose levels may be considered relatively safe for use.

Item Type:Article
Keyword:Elaeis guineensis; Acute toxicity; Hepatotoxicity; Rats
Faculty or Institute:Faculty of Food Science and Technology
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
Institute of Bioscience
Publisher:Academic Journals
ID Code:29896
Deposited By: Azizan Arshad
Deposited On:12 Nov 2014 12:17
Last Modified:08 Sep 2015 10:36

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