Bioconversion of Palm Kernel Cake and its Evaluation as an Aquafeed Ingredient
Buchi, Iluyemi Florence (2003) Bioconversion of Palm Kernel Cake and its Evaluation as an Aquafeed Ingredient. PhD thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia.
Palm kernel cake (PKC) is one of the by-products of the oil palm industry. Malaysia being the world's largest producer of oil palm produces over a million tones of PKC annually. Traditionally, PKC is used as an ingredient in ruminant feed and its use for non-ruminants is usually in low amounts due to problems of digestibility. In this study, an attempt was made to microbially enrich the PKC protein content using: Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Aspergillus niger and Sclerotium rolfsii fungi. In the solid-state fermentation (SSF), effects of inoculum concentrations (1, 2 and 3%), moisture levels (41, 44 and 47%) and pH levels (3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0) were evaluated. Protein content of PKC increased significantly (P<0.05) coupled with a significant reduction in cellulose and hemicellulose contents by all the fungi used. The highest protein increase of 33% was obtained using T. longibrachiatum fermented PKC compared with 18% in unfermented PKC. The effect of moisture content was more critical compared to pH. Fermentation increased the analysed total amino acids (14 to 25%) and mostly the unsaturated ones (oleic and linoleic acids).
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