Enhancing the Utilization of Oil Palm (Elaeis Guineensis) Frond by Steam Treatment and Nitrogen Supplementation in Ruminants
Bengaly, Konimba (2002) Enhancing the Utilization of Oil Palm (Elaeis Guineensis) Frond by Steam Treatment and Nitrogen Supplementation in Ruminants. PhD thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia.
The overall Objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of improving the feeding value of oil palm frond (OPF) by steaming-process Animal performance is a function of intake of digestible nutrients and the efficiency of their utilization From a review of literature, the potential intake of fibrous crop residues can only be realized If microbial activities were not limited, allowing the slowly fermented structural carbohydrates, to be degraded in the rumen It is apparent that the efficiency of N utilization In poor quality roughages With low N is closely related to the amount of available substrates from the basal diet and from the supplement being used to correct Its nutrient deficiencies In a series of experiments the above factors were considered It was assumed that steam treatment would make more energy available from OPF and that strategic supplementation could be used to further Improve steam-treated OPF utilization by ruminants The first experiment was designed to establish optimum steaming conditions for OPF The effects of steam pressure and moisture content of OPF on fibre fractions and msitu degradability were Investigated Three treatment groups of samples were obtamed from newly harvested fronds, namely, untreated (VT), steam treated as fresh (FT) and predried to 25-30% moisture (OT) before steam treatments at pressures: 10 kg em-I for 20 min, 12.5 kg cm-2 for 7 min, and 15 kg cm-2 for 4 min. Steam treatment increased water solubility (P <0.00/) of OPF, resulting in a decrease in the neutral detergent fibre (NOF) fractions, particularly the hemicellulose and an increase in acid detergent lignin (ADL) content. The increments in potential degradability (PO) compared to UT were: 31.7 - 55.3% (FT), 31.7 - 59.1% (DT). It was concluded that in considering the energy economy, the optimal treatment conditions of OPF were a steaming pressure of 10 kg cm-2 for 20 min and the material should be pre-dried to 25- 30% moisture content.
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