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Characterization of mono-and diacylglycerol from plant and animal sources by gas chromatography and differential scanning calorimetry techniques

Abdul Rahman, Nasyrah (2012) Characterization of mono-and diacylglycerol from plant and animal sources by gas chromatography and differential scanning calorimetry techniques. Masters thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia.

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Abstract

Mono- (MAG) and di-acylglycerols (DAG) or coded as E471 in the food labelling could be derived from either plant or animal lipid materials. From the religious perspective, use of lard based ingredients is not allowed for Muslim consumers. Hence, the objective of this study is to characterize lipid sources used to derive MAG and DAG based on fatty acid and thermal analysis data. This would lead to a simple and efficient method that could ascertain the source of the lipid used to formulate the MAG and DAG. In this study, MAG and DAG of both plant (palm oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, and sunflower oil) and animal based lipids (lard, beef fat and goat fat) were synthesized according to a chemical glycerolysis method catalyzed by sodium hydroxide. MAG and DAG of individual lipid were isolated and purified using the standard column chromatography method and subjected to fatty acid analysis by gas chromatography (GC) and thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Principal component analysis (PCA) are also used as tool to discriminate MAG and DAG derived from animal and plant based lipid based on fatty acid and thermal analysis data for halal authentication purposes. In addition to these, analysis of commercially available emulsifiers is also performed in order to find out whether they are formulated from non-halal fat such as lard. The application of PCA to the fatty acid data showed that it was possible to distinctly classify MAG and DAG of plant lipids to those derived from animal fats. DSC analysis showed that individual thermodynamic parameters in the cooling profiles of MAG and DAG derived from each lipids is not identical in many respects such as the onset of the first crystallization and pattern of cooling profiles. As such, they can be used as finger prints to identify MAG and DAG derived from different lipid sources. The application of PCA to the data collected from the individual instrumental technique showed that it was possible to distinctly classify MAG and DAG of plant lipids from those derived from animal fats. Meanwhile, analysis of commercial samples using GC and DSC techniques showed that none of the commercial emulsifiers tested was found to possess any similarity to laboratory prepared lard based emulsifers.

Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Subject:Diglycerides
Subject:Plant lipids
Subject:Gas chromatography
Chairman Supervisor:En. Dzulkifly Bin Mat Hashim
Call Number:IPPH 2012 5
Faculty or Institute:Halal Products Research Institute
ID Code:39781
Deposited By: Haridan Mohd Jais
Deposited On:11 Aug 2015 17:53
Last Modified:11 Aug 2015 17:53

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