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Phenolic composition, antioxidant, anti-wrinkles and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of cocoa pod extract

Abdul Karim, Azila and Azlan, Azrina and Ismail, Amin and Hashim, Puziah and Abd Gani, Siti Salwa and Zainudin, Badrul Hisyam and Abdullah, Nur Azilah (2014) Phenolic composition, antioxidant, anti-wrinkles and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of cocoa pod extract. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 14 . art. no. 381. pp. 1-13. ISSN 1472-6882

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Abstract

Background Cocoa pod is an outer part of cocoa fruits being discarded during cocoa bean processing. Authors found out that data on its usage in literature as cosmetic materials was not recorded in vast. In this study, cocoa pod extract was investigated for its potential as a cosmetic ingredient. Methods Cocoa pod extract (CPE) composition was accomplished using UHPLC. The antioxidant capacity were measured using scavenging assay of 1,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching assay (BCB) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Inhibiting effect on skin degradation enzymes was carried out using elastase and collagenase assays. The skin whitening effect of CPE was determined based on mushroom tyrosinase assay and sun screening effect (UV-absorbance at 200-400 nm wavelength). Results LC-MS/MS data showed the presence of carboxylic acid, phenolic acid, fatty acid, flavonoids (flavonol and flavones), stilbenoids and terpenoids in CPE. Results for antioxidant activity exhibited that CPE possessed good antioxidant activity, based on the mechanism of the assays compared with ascorbic acid (AA) and standardized pine bark extract (PBE); DPPH: AA > CPE > PBE; FRAP: PBE > CPE > AA; and BCB: BHT > CPE > PBE. Cocoa pod extract showed better action against elastase and collagenase enzymes in comparison with PBE and AA. Higher inhibition towards tyrosinase enzyme was exhibited by CPE than kojic acid and AA, although lower than PBE. CPE induced proliferation when tested on human fibroblast cell at low concentration. CPE also exhibited a potential as UVB sunscreen despite its low performance as a UVA sunscreen agent. Conclusions Therefore, the CPE has high potential as a cosmetic ingredient due to its anti-wrinkle, skin whitening, and sunscreen effects.

Item Type:Article
Keyword:Cocoa pod extract; Antioxidant; Anti-wrinkles; Skin whitening; Sunscreen agent; Cosmetic ingredient
Faculty or Institute:Faculty of Medicine and Health Science
Halal Products Research Institute
Publisher:BioMed Central
DOI Number:10.1186/1472-6882-14-381
Altmetrics:http://www.altmetric.com/details.php?domain=psasir.upm.edu.my&doi=10.1186/1472-6882-14-381
ID Code:34901
Deposited By: Nurul Ainie Mokhtar
Deposited On:23 Dec 2015 17:07
Last Modified:23 Dec 2015 17:07

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