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Occurrence of 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) in the environment and effect on exposed biota: a review

Aris, Ahmad Zaharin and Shamsuddin, Aida Soraya and Praveena, Sarva Mangala (2014) Occurrence of 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) in the environment and effect on exposed biota: a review. Environment International, 69 . pp. 104-119. ISSN 0160-4120; ESSN: 1873-6750

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Official URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S...

Abstract

17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) is a synthetic hormone, which is a derivative of the natural hormone, estradiol (E2). EE2 is an orally bio-active estrogen, and is one of the most commonly used medications for humans as well as livestock and aquaculture activity. EE2 has become a widespread problem in the environment due to its high resistance to the process of degradation and its tendency to (i) absorb organic matter, (ii) accumulate in sediment and (iii) concentrate in biota. Numerous studies have reported the ability of EE2 to alter sex determination, delay sexual maturity, and decrease the secondary sexual characteristics of exposed organisms even at a low concentration (ng/L) by mimicking its natural analogue, 17β-estradiol (E2). Thus, the aim of this review is to provide an overview of the science regarding EE2, the concentration levels in the environment (water, sediment and biota) and summarize the effects of this compound on exposed biota at various concentrations, stage life, sex, and species. The challenges in respect of EE2 include the extension of the limited database on the EE2 pollution profile in the environment, its fate and transport mechanism, as well as the exposure level of EE2 for better prediction and definition revision of EE2 toxicity end points, notably for the purpose of environmental risk assessment.

Item Type:Article
Keyword:17α-ethynylestradiol; EE2; Estrogen; Estradiol; Pollutants; Biota
Faculty or Institute:Faculty of Environmental Studies
Faculty of Medicine and Health Science
Publisher:Elsevier
DOI Number:10.1016/j.envint.2014.04.011
Altmetrics:http://www.altmetric.com/details.php?domain=psasir.upm.edu.my&doi=10.1016/j.envint.2014.04.011
ID Code:34700
Deposited By: Nurul Ainie Mokhtar
Deposited On:21 Dec 2015 19:14
Last Modified:21 Dec 2015 19:14

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